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Psychology Final.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
01:830:101
Professor
Leonard Hamilton
Semester
Summer

Description
Anterograde Amnesia- the inability to store new long term memories Determinism- all behavior has a cause or determinant Free will- behavior is caused by independent decisions, not external determinant Nature-Nature- relative roles played by heredity and environment in differences in behavior Mind-Brain- philosophical question of how the conscious mind is related to the physical nervous system Ergonomic- the study of efficiency in working environments. Psychoanalysis- approach to personality and psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud based on identifying unconscious thoughts and emotions and bringing them to consciousness Forensics- advice and consultation Cognition- deep thinking and learning through experience, senses and thoughts Heredity- physical or mental characteristics passed on from older generations Evolution- gradual change in frequency of various genes from one generation to the next Absolute threshold- the smallest intensity of a stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus to be detected. Altruism- unselfish behaviors done for the good of someone else Attribution-thought process we use to assign causes to our own behavior and to the behavior of others Bait-and Switch- offering an extremely good deal, then making additional demands after someone has committed Binocular Cues- visual cues that depend on the action of both eyes Cochlea- snail shaped, fluid filled structure that contains receptors to hear Endorphin- chemicals produced by pain resembling those of opiates, like pain Gate Theory- pain messages must pass through your spinal cord, which can block the messages Opponent-Process- we perceive colors in terms of paired opposites: red versus green, yellow versus blue, white versus black Pheromone- odorous chemicals that change how others respond to the animal socially Signal Detection- people tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses and false alarms Visual constancy- tendency to perceive objects as unchanging in color shapes and sizes despite variations in what actually reaches the retina Volley principal- identification of pitch by groups of hair cells responding to vibrations produced by action potential. Double- blind- study where neither observer nor subject knows which subject is receiving treatment Correlation- strength of a relationship between two factors, how much and in what way those factors vary, and how well one factor can predict the other Dependent variable- item the experimenter measures to determine how much changes in the independent variable affect it Informed consent- subject agrees to take in the experiment after being told what to do Random sample- group of random individuals that everyone has equal chance of being selected Operational definition- specifies the procedure used to produce or measure something, numbers Falsifiable- making sufficient predictions for which we can at least imagine evidence to contract the theory Parsimony- scientist’s preference for the theory that explains the results using the simplest assumptions Placebo-inactive pill that has no pharmacological effect Standard deviation- measure of amount of variance among scores in normal distribution Accommodation- modification of an established schema to fit a new problem Assimilation- applying an established schema to new objects or problems Group think- members of a group suppress their doubts about a group’s poorly thought out decision for fear of making a bad impression Identity foreclosure- state of having firm identity decisions without having thought much about them Object permanence- concept that objects continue to exist without seeing, hear, or sense them Pre-operational stage- Infants between the ages of 18 and 24 months acquire the ability to visualize objects and events mentally Schema- organized way of interacting with objects in the world Terror management- we cope with our fear of death by avoiding thinking about death and by thinking in a world that provides self-esteem, hope, and value in life Zygote- fertilized egg cell Action potential- excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength no matter the distance Corpus callosum- large set of axons connecting the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex and thus allowing the two hemispheres to communicate Dendrite- one wide branching structures of a neuron that receives transitions from other neurons Dopamine- neurotransmitter that promotes activity levels and facilitates movement Occipital lobe- rear portion of cerebral hemisphere, (vision) Postsynaptic neuron- cell on receiving end of a synapse Somatosensory cortex- touch, perception Resting potential- electrical polarization that ordinarily occurs across the membrane of an axon that is not undergoing an action potential Terminal bout on- bulge at end of axon from which neurotransmitters are released Anxiolytic drugs- medicines that help relax Avoidance learning- learning to make a response that avoids pain or something similar Blocking effect- tendency of one stimulus to block the formation of an associated to an added stimulus Chaining- sequence of behaviors in which reinforcement for one response is the opportunity to engage in the next response. FI-schedule- (fixed interval) - rule for delivering reinforcem
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