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01:830:101 (88)
Xi Wang (6)

Exam 2 Study guide.docx

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Rutgers University
Xi Wang

Psych Study Guide SENSATION AND PERCEPTION . Sensation: The conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system; the detection of stimuli . Perception: The interpretation of that information . Parts and function of the eye: • Pupil: an adjustable opening in the eye • Iris: the colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil • • Light that passes through the eye passes through a layer of vitreous humor (jellylike substance) to strike the retina Retina: A layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball Cornea: A rigid transparent structure on the outside of the eyeball Lens: Just below the cornea: can bend and vary in thickness to allow for accommodation of objects at different distances Fovea: Central area of the human retina; adapted for highly detailed vision. Greatest density of receptors . Receptors and functions of receptors • Located in the retina, in the back of the eyeball; very sensitive and very specialized Cones: Adapted for color vision, daytime vision. Only 5% of total receptors, but far more axonal connections to brain: send much more information. The fovea is all cones Rods: Adapted for vision in dim light – not color . Parts of the ear • Sound waves hit eardrum which cause it to vibrate Eardrum connects to 3 tiny bones: hammer, anvil, and stirrup Stirrup vibrates last, and transfers vibrations to the cochlea • Contain fluid filled canals Also contain receptors for hearing, which are hair cells These hair cells connect to neurons which transmit signals to the brain. . How sound is defined • Ear is technically known as pinna Mammalian eat converts sound waves into mechanical displacements along a row of receptor cells Sound waves are vibrations of air or another medium Frequency: the number of cycles (vibrations) a sound wave goes through in a second (hertz/Hz) Loudness: amplitude of sound waves: intensity Adult humans hear sound waves from 15Hz to 15000Hz Lower frequencies simply vibrate hair cells, while higher frequencies use volleys; group of hair cells respond. Highest frequencies only vibrate hair cells at a certain place (very highest, stirrup end.) Called Place Principle. We detect where sounds are coming from simply by calculating difference in time to each ear . Types and cause of deafness • Conduction deafness: bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. Can be repaired surgically Nerve deafness: Diseases, heredity, exposure to loud noises destroy either cochlea or efferent neurons. Cannot be surgically repaired. Hearing aids help COGNITION AND LANGUAGE . Differences between attentive and pre attentive processes • Nude guy at a party vs. nude guy at a nudist beach: context Very easy to spot the nude guy at a party: pre attentive process Find a specific nude guy at the nudist beach: much more difficult – requires attention: attentive process (where’s waldo) . Algorithms and heuristics • Algorithm: a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis. Ex. Literally trying every route home and timing it to find the fastest Heuristics: strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess. Ex. recalling where traffic lights are and eliminating those routes. For heuristics, one accepts a certain risk of error: ex. Difficult to read instructions implies difficult task, difficult to read ingredients implies danger. . Maximizers and satisficers • Maximizing: thoroughly considering every possibility to find the best one. (algorithm) Satisficing: searching only until you find something satisfactory. When I listen to the radio, I switch channels frequently to find the best station. I shop at many stores before deciding which clothes to buy. I expect to go to many job interviews before accepting one. Maximizers, research shows, make better choices, and they end up with higher paying jobs. They take more time to make decisions, and are less satisfied with their choices. . Understanding language • Context: if you replace one sound in a word with a similar sound, it will be heard as the sound that is ‘supposed’ to be there: i.e. “sh” in abolish Lip reading: if lip movements don’t match what we hear, we “hear” differently. Understanding sentences: “the store sells horse shoes.” “The store sells alligator shoes” Understanding sentences depends largely on your understanding of the world. Limits to language understanding • Double-embedded sentences: “the dog the saw chased a squirrel.” Embedded once: can handle that. “The squirrel the dog the cat saw chased climbed the tree” double embedded- overburdens memory. Double and triple negatives, even when grammatically proper are difficult to understand. (politicians) . Reading • Phoneme: unit of sound (f or sh) Morpheme: unit of meaning: thrills has two morphemes: one for thrill and one for plural We develop expertise over time at recognizing both. Word recognition: word-superiority effect: people recognize letters better as part of a word than by themselves. Explanation: neurons associated with the word COIN are more numerous than each individual letter. Fixations: when eyes are stationary Saccades: quick eye movement from one fixation to another Brain “takes breaks” during eye movement, and you only read during fixations. Normal pace is about 4 fixations per second. . ADD, ADHD and differences • ADD: Attention deficit disorder is characterized by easy distractions, impulsiveness, and failure to follow through on plans. ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the same except there is also “fidgetiness” inability to sit still. Extremely high variability in symptoms: most people perform well enough, their “attention blink” is longer: more easily distracted. Tasks sensitive to ADD • Choice delay: tests impulsivity: children who choose the small reward right away are more likely to have attention issues in childhood and adolescence. The stop signal task: Press “X” or “O” if you see “X” or “O” on the screen, unless you hear a beep… ADD/ADHD tend not to be able to stop the press unless the beep is simultaneous. NATURE, NURTURE, AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT . 8 slides of Piaget Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity. Ranges from 1 to 0: 1 meaning that heredity controls all the variance, 0 indicating that heredity controls none of the variance. Chromosomes • Strands of genetic material Each human nucleus: 23 pairs of chromosomes, except egg and sperm cells which have 23 unpaired. Sections along each chromosome, genes, control the chemical reactions that direct development: e.g. height, hair color. Genes are composed of DNA, which controls the production of proteins. Sex-linked and sex-limited genes • You have 2 of almost all genes. Exceptions: sex chromosomes, which determine whether you are male or female. Mammals: X and Y: female has 2X and male has 1X and 1Y Mother contributes 1X and father contributes either 1X or 1Y. Genes located on the X-Chromosome are known as sex linked or x-linked genes; an x-linked recessive gene is much more likely to show its effects in males (because men only have 1X) Genes differ in effect based on hormones: facial hair, breasts. . Dominant and Recessive Genes • Dominant Genes: a single copy is sufficient to produce effect (e.g. brown eyes) Recessive Genes: Its effects appear only if the dominant copy is absent. . How a trait is biological without being genetic example: adopted child with arrest record, biological mother with arrest record: may not be genetic: may have to do with biological mother consuming alcohol while pregnant. INTELLIGENCE . Spearman model of intelligence • 1904: Charles Spearman: set out to measure individual differences in performance. Began by judging how well a group of people performed on things like judging musical pitch, following directions, matching colors, math. Found positive correlation; called it general ability. Each task also requires specific ability; correlation isn’t perfect. General ability usually involve similar skills but when there is a difference, it can be explained Similar skills: working memory Genetics, nutrition, health. . The Stanford Binet test • The test that Binet and Simon designed was later modified for English speakers Stanford psychologists and published as the Stanford Binet IQ test. The tests items are designed by age: correct answers of most “age 8” questions, but not 8” questions, signifies a mental age of 8. Known as adaptive testing. Mean score at any age is 100. . Wechsler Tests • The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WAIC-IV) have the same scoring system as Stanford-Binet. These are the most widely used
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