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study guide exam 2.docx

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Xi Wang

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Review for Exam 2: General Psychology 830:101:01 & 03 Sensation and Perception: Know the definitions of sensation and perception, the parts (and function of the parts) of the eye, including types and functions of receptors.Also know the parts of the ear, how sound is defined (amplitude, frequency, wavelength…), types and causes of deafness. Know Cutaneous Senses, and depth perception cues. * Sensation: The conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system; the detection of stimuli * Perception: The interpretation of that information e.g.: Light rays striking your eyes: Sensation Recognizing your roommate: Perception Pupil: an adjustable opening in the eye * Iris: the colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil Light that passes through the eye passes through a layer of vitreous humor (jellylike substance) to strike the retina. * Retina:Alayer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball * Cornea:Arigid transparent structure on the outside of the eyeball * Lens: Just below the cornea: can bend and vary in thickness to allow for accomodation of objects at different distances. * Fovea: Central area of the human retina; adapted for highly detailed vision. Greatest density of receptors. * Presbyopia: age related inability to focus on nearby objects (decrease in lens flexibility.) * Myopia: Nearsightedness: inability to focus on distant objects * Hyperopia: Farsightedness: inability to focus on close objects * Glaucoma: Increased pressure within eyeball; can impair vision * Cataract: cloudy lens * Frequency: the number of cycles (vibrations) a sound wave goes through in a second (hertz/Hz). * Loudness: amplitude of soundwaves: intensity * How the ear works: * Sound waves strike eardrum: cause it to vibrate * Eardrum connects to 3 tiny bones: hammer, anvil, and stirrup. (aka malleus, incus, stapes.) * Stirrup vibrates last, and transfers vibrations to the cochlea. - contain fluid-filled canals - also contain receptors for hearing, which are hair-cells. These hair cells connect to neurons which transmit signals to the brains * Conduction deafness – bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. Can be repaired surgically. * Nerve deafness: disease, heredity, exposure to loud noises destroy either cochlea or efferent neurons. Cannot be surgically repaired. Hearing aids help * Cutaneous Senses: skins senses; pain: sensory and emotional aspect * depth perception cues: o Binocular cues: o a. Retinal disparity: the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas o b. Convergence of the eyes: degree to which they turn in to focus on a close object; when someone is closer your eyes are converging o Monocular cues: o a. experience: drawing of man aiming at far away elephant – if you’ve never seen a drawing, it’s a baby elephant. * include object size, linear perspective, detail, interposition, texture gradient, shadows, l ens accomodation, Motion parallax: closer objects move more than farther objects. Cognition and Language: Know the difference between attentive and pre-attentive processes. Know the attention bottleneck and be able to explain the Stroop Effect. Know algorithms and heuristics, maximizers and satisficers, the way we understand (and don’t understand) sentences.Also understandADD,ADHD, and the difference between the two. Know what Chomsky had to say about a “built- in” language tool. Finally, know who Daniel Kahneman is. * Nude guy at a party vs. nude guy at a nudist beach: context * Very easy to spot the nude guy at a party: preattentive process * Find a specific nude guy at the nudist beach: much more difficult – requires attention: attentive process. (Where’s Waldo) * The attention bottleneck * Too many objects requiring attention diminish attention to each. * Despite thinking we can do 2 things at once, we can only concentrate on, and plan one. * Limited ability to pay attention to one thing at one time * The stroop effect: The tendency to read the words instead of saying the colors. * Can be done better if: Blur vision Say the colors in a different language Regard the color words as meaningless *ADD -Attention Deficit Disorder, is characterized by easy distraction, impulsiveness, failure to follow through on plans. *ADHD –Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – the same, except there is also “fidgetiness:” inability to sit still. *Algorithm: a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis. e.g. literally trying every route home and timing it to find the fastest. * Heuristics: strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess. e.g. recalling where traffic lights are and eliminating those routes. * Maximizing: thoroughly considering every possibility to find the best one. (algorithm) * Satisficing: searching only until you find something satisfactory. (heuristic) * Maximizers, research shows, make better choices, and they end up with higher-paying jobs. * Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Prize for showing how people misuse heuristics * Chomsky suggests there is a language acquisition device built in (deaf children/sign language example): others counter that children just have an enormous capacity to learn. Nature, Nurture, and Human Development Know all slides related to Piaget, particularly developmental stages. Understand how heritability is defined, and how it is measured. Know basic genetic terminology: chromosomes (and number of chromosomes, difference between X- and Y- chromosomes,(and related disorders)) dominant and recessive genes.Also understand how a trait can be biological without being genetic. Make sure you watch the Paul Zak video: * Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that i
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