Review for Exam 2: General Psychology 830:101:01 & 03
Sensation and Perception:
Know the definitions of sensation and perception, the parts (and
function of the parts) of the eye, including types and functions of
receptors.Also know the parts of the ear, how sound is defined
(amplitude, frequency, wavelength…), types and causes of
deafness. Know Cutaneous Senses, and depth perception cues.
* Sensation: The conversion of energy from the environment into a
pattern of response by the nervous system; the detection of stimuli
* Perception: The interpretation of that information
e.g.: Light rays striking your eyes: Sensation
Recognizing your roommate: Perception
Pupil: an adjustable opening in the eye
* Iris: the colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding
Light that passes through the eye passes through a layer of vitreous
humor (jellylike substance) to strike the retina.
* Retina:Alayer of visual receptors covering the back surface of
* Cornea:Arigid transparent structure on the outside of the eyeball * Lens: Just below the cornea: can bend and vary in thickness to
allow for accomodation of objects at different distances.
* Fovea: Central area of the human retina; adapted for highly
detailed vision. Greatest density of receptors.
* Presbyopia: age related inability to focus on nearby objects
(decrease in lens flexibility.)
* Myopia: Nearsightedness: inability to focus on distant objects
* Hyperopia: Farsightedness: inability to focus on close objects
* Glaucoma: Increased pressure within eyeball; can impair vision
* Cataract: cloudy lens
* Frequency: the number of cycles (vibrations) a sound wave goes
through in a second (hertz/Hz).
* Loudness: amplitude of soundwaves: intensity
* How the ear works:
* Sound waves strike eardrum: cause it to vibrate
* Eardrum connects to 3 tiny bones: hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
(aka malleus, incus, stapes.)
* Stirrup vibrates last, and transfers vibrations to the cochlea.
- contain fluid-filled canals
- also contain receptors for hearing, which are hair-cells. These hair cells connect to neurons which transmit signals to the
* Conduction deafness – bones connected to the eardrum fail to
transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. Can be repaired
* Nerve deafness: disease, heredity, exposure to loud noises
destroy either cochlea or efferent neurons. Cannot be surgically
repaired. Hearing aids help
* Cutaneous Senses: skins senses; pain: sensory and emotional
* depth perception cues:
o Binocular cues:
o a. Retinal disparity: the difference in the apparent position of an
object as seen by the left and right retinas
o b. Convergence of the eyes: degree to which they turn in to focus
on a close object; when someone is closer your eyes are
o Monocular cues:
o a. experience: drawing of man aiming at far away elephant – if you’ve never seen a drawing, it’s a baby elephant.
* include object size, linear perspective, detail, interposition,
texture gradient, shadows, l ens accomodation, Motion parallax:
closer objects move more than farther objects.
Cognition and Language:
Know the difference between attentive and pre-attentive processes.
Know the attention bottleneck and be able to explain the Stroop
Effect. Know algorithms and heuristics, maximizers and
satisficers, the way we understand (and don’t understand)
sentences.Also understandADD,ADHD, and the difference
between the two. Know what Chomsky had to say about a “built-
in” language tool. Finally, know who Daniel Kahneman is. * Nude guy at a party vs. nude guy at a nudist beach: context
* Very easy to spot the nude guy at a party: preattentive process
* Find a specific nude guy at the nudist beach: much more difficult
– requires attention: attentive process. (Where’s Waldo)
* The attention bottleneck
* Too many objects requiring attention diminish attention to each.
* Despite thinking we can do 2 things at once, we can only
concentrate on, and plan one.
* Limited ability to pay attention to one thing at one time
* The stroop effect: The tendency to read the words instead of
saying the colors.
* Can be done better if: Blur vision
Say the colors in a different language Regard the color words as
*ADD -Attention Deficit Disorder, is characterized by easy
distraction, impulsiveness, failure to follow through on plans.
*ADHD –Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – the same,
except there is also “fidgetiness:” inability to sit still.
*Algorithm: a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a
problem or testing every hypothesis. e.g. literally trying every
route home and timing it to find the fastest.
* Heuristics: strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a
satisfactory guess. e.g. recalling where traffic lights are and eliminating those routes.
* Maximizing: thoroughly considering every possibility to find the
best one. (algorithm)
* Satisficing: searching only until you find something satisfactory.
* Maximizers, research shows, make better choices, and they end
up with higher-paying jobs.
* Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Prize for showing how people
* Chomsky suggests there is a language acquisition device built in
(deaf children/sign language example): others counter that children
just have an enormous capacity to learn.
Nature, Nurture, and Human Development
Know all slides related to Piaget, particularly developmental
stages. Understand how heritability is defined, and how it is
measured. Know basic genetic terminology: chromosomes (and
number of chromosomes, difference between X- and Y-
chromosomes,(and related disorders)) dominant and recessive
genes.Also understand how a trait can be biological without being
Make sure you watch the Paul Zak video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rFAdlU2ETjU * Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that