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Midterm

Psych Exam 1 Review Ch1-4.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:101
Professor
Margaret Ingate

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What is the importance of Kandel and the sea slug? • Took single cell recordings from slugs to categorize what happens at a cellular level with repeated stimulation • Aplysia What are the three neuroimaging techniques? • fMRI: measures blood oxygen levels to detect brain activity • PET: uses radioactive isotopes to identify activity in specific structures (bad for you) • EEG – uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes for electrical brain activity (not precise) • MEG – records magnetic changes (provides little precision about location of brain activity) • DTI: traces movement of water molecules in brain and helpful in showing neuron pathways What cells make up the nervous system? • Neurons: main building blocks of brain o Sensory – gather sensory info, periphery o Motor – communicate from spinal cord to muscle o Interneuron – carry info from neurons in the brain to spinal cord • Glia: help support neurons o Astrocytes: create blood brain barrier to prevent drugs/harmful substances from getting to the brain o Oligodendroglia: provide myelin to neurons; speed up transmission o Microglia: clean up dead cells Parts of a neuron? • Cell body • Dendrites: receive messages • Axon: send messages AWAY • Axon terminals: transmit signals to dendrites • Mylein sheath: a substance that speeds up the firing of neuron • Nodes of ranvier: small gaps on the neuron that aren’t covered in myelin • Terminal bouton: bulge at the end of an axon from which the axon releases a neurotransmitter • Synapse: specialized junction between one neuron and another where neurotransmitters are released Types of neurons? • Bipolar • Unipolar • Multipolar • Pyrimidal (only found in the cortex of the brain and allows for connections in the brain) How do neurons work? Resting potential vs action potential? • Resting potential: inactive neuron, negatively charged inside and positively charged outside o Sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside • Action potential: sodium channels open and sodium goes in making inside more positive o Then potassium channels open and potassium goes out making outside negative • This electrical shift then allows the next neuron to fire Types of junctions? • Gap junctions which are electrical synapse in the nervous system between neurons and muscles, neurons and neurons and neurons, and neurons and glia retina, cardiac muscle and several places in the brain • Axon to dendrite communication is through chemical synapses (action potentials) • Dendrite to dendrite communication through gap junctions (glia cells) • MOST COMMON IN INVERTEBRATES; except human eye, heart and brain Are synapses excitatory or inhibitory? • BOTH. Binding of neurotrans.At excitatory synapse increases likelihood of action potentials more likely • Binding of neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses makes action potentials less likely What are the most famous neurotransmitters? • Serotonin: handles emotions & motivation; used in antidepressants to prolong serotonin activity; more serotonin = more happy; 15 receptor types • Dopamine: movement, memory, congition  All old people diseases because dopamine affected; Parkinsons drug increase dopamine, Activity, antipsychotic drugs decrease dopamine activity; 5 receptors • GABA– brains inhibitory transmitter; antianxiety meds and antiepilepsy meds • Glutamate – excitory neurotransmitter in brain; excess from stroke causes cell death • Norepinephrine – increases memory of emotional/important events; all neurons using norepinephrine originate from locus coerelus • Histamine – arousal and alertness; antihistamine in allergy meds • Endorphins – more happy and less pain; same effect as morphine and heroin • Nitric oxide – dilates blood vessel in brain; only gas What are the types of psychoactive drugs? 1. Stimulants: dopamine, agonists, acetylcholine, norepinephrine agonists a. Increases energy, alertness and activity b. Cocaine, Riddelin,Adderal, nicotine and tobacco 2. Hallucinogens: multiple modes of action, can do a lot of shit a. Induce sensory
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