What is the importance of Kandel and the sea slug?
• Took single cell recordings from slugs to categorize what happens at a cellular level with
What are the three neuroimaging techniques?
• fMRI: measures blood oxygen levels to detect brain activity
• PET: uses radioactive isotopes to identify activity in specific structures (bad for you)
• EEG – uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes for electrical brain activity
• MEG – records magnetic changes (provides little precision about location of brain
• DTI: traces movement of water molecules in brain and helpful in showing neuron
What cells make up the nervous system?
• Neurons: main building blocks of brain
o Sensory – gather sensory info, periphery
o Motor – communicate from spinal cord to muscle
o Interneuron – carry info from neurons in the brain to spinal cord
• Glia: help support neurons
o Astrocytes: create blood brain barrier to prevent drugs/harmful substances from
getting to the brain
o Oligodendroglia: provide myelin to neurons; speed up transmission
o Microglia: clean up dead cells
Parts of a neuron?
• Cell body
• Dendrites: receive messages • Axon: send messages AWAY
• Axon terminals: transmit signals to dendrites
• Mylein sheath: a substance that speeds up the firing of neuron
• Nodes of ranvier: small gaps on the neuron that aren’t covered in myelin
• Terminal bouton: bulge at the end of an axon from which the axon releases a
• Synapse: specialized junction between one neuron and another where neurotransmitters
Types of neurons?
• Pyrimidal (only found in the cortex of the brain and allows for connections in the brain)
How do neurons work? Resting potential vs action potential?
• Resting potential: inactive neuron, negatively charged inside and positively charged
o Sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside
• Action potential: sodium channels open and sodium goes in making inside more positive
o Then potassium channels open and potassium goes out making outside negative
• This electrical shift then allows the next neuron to fire
Types of junctions?
• Gap junctions which are electrical synapse in the nervous system between neurons and
muscles, neurons and neurons and neurons, and neurons and glia retina, cardiac muscle
and several places in the brain
• Axon to dendrite communication is through chemical synapses (action potentials)
• Dendrite to dendrite communication through gap junctions (glia cells) • MOST COMMON IN INVERTEBRATES; except human eye, heart and brain
Are synapses excitatory or inhibitory?
• BOTH. Binding of neurotrans.At excitatory synapse increases likelihood of action
potentials more likely
• Binding of neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses makes action potentials less likely
What are the most famous neurotransmitters?
• Serotonin: handles emotions & motivation; used in antidepressants to prolong serotonin
activity; more serotonin = more happy; 15 receptor types
• Dopamine: movement, memory, congition All old people diseases because dopamine
affected; Parkinsons drug increase dopamine, Activity, antipsychotic drugs decrease
dopamine activity; 5 receptors
• GABA– brains inhibitory transmitter; antianxiety meds and antiepilepsy meds
• Glutamate – excitory neurotransmitter in brain; excess from stroke causes cell death
• Norepinephrine – increases memory of emotional/important events; all neurons using
norepinephrine originate from locus coerelus
• Histamine – arousal and alertness; antihistamine in allergy meds
• Endorphins – more happy and less pain; same effect as morphine and heroin
• Nitric oxide – dilates blood vessel in brain; only gas
What are the types of psychoactive drugs?
1. Stimulants: dopamine, agonists, acetylcholine, norepinephrine agonists
a. Increases energy, alertness and activity
b. Cocaine, Riddelin,Adderal, nicotine and tobacco
2. Hallucinogens: multiple modes of action, can do a lot of shit
a. Induce sensory