Study Guides (248,683)
United States (123,475)
Psychology (557)
01:830:101 (91)

Psych Exam 1 Review Ch1-4.docx

6 Pages

Course Code
Margaret Ingate

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
What is the importance of Kandel and the sea slug? • Took single cell recordings from slugs to categorize what happens at a cellular level with repeated stimulation • Aplysia What are the three neuroimaging techniques? • fMRI: measures blood oxygen levels to detect brain activity • PET: uses radioactive isotopes to identify activity in specific structures (bad for you) • EEG – uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes for electrical brain activity (not precise) • MEG – records magnetic changes (provides little precision about location of brain activity) • DTI: traces movement of water molecules in brain and helpful in showing neuron pathways What cells make up the nervous system? • Neurons: main building blocks of brain o Sensory – gather sensory info, periphery o Motor – communicate from spinal cord to muscle o Interneuron – carry info from neurons in the brain to spinal cord • Glia: help support neurons o Astrocytes: create blood brain barrier to prevent drugs/harmful substances from getting to the brain o Oligodendroglia: provide myelin to neurons; speed up transmission o Microglia: clean up dead cells Parts of a neuron? • Cell body • Dendrites: receive messages • Axon: send messages AWAY • Axon terminals: transmit signals to dendrites • Mylein sheath: a substance that speeds up the firing of neuron • Nodes of ranvier: small gaps on the neuron that aren’t covered in myelin • Terminal bouton: bulge at the end of an axon from which the axon releases a neurotransmitter • Synapse: specialized junction between one neuron and another where neurotransmitters are released Types of neurons? • Bipolar • Unipolar • Multipolar • Pyrimidal (only found in the cortex of the brain and allows for connections in the brain) How do neurons work? Resting potential vs action potential? • Resting potential: inactive neuron, negatively charged inside and positively charged outside o Sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside • Action potential: sodium channels open and sodium goes in making inside more positive o Then potassium channels open and potassium goes out making outside negative • This electrical shift then allows the next neuron to fire Types of junctions? • Gap junctions which are electrical synapse in the nervous system between neurons and muscles, neurons and neurons and neurons, and neurons and glia retina, cardiac muscle and several places in the brain • Axon to dendrite communication is through chemical synapses (action potentials) • Dendrite to dendrite communication through gap junctions (glia cells) • MOST COMMON IN INVERTEBRATES; except human eye, heart and brain Are synapses excitatory or inhibitory? • BOTH. Binding of neurotrans.At excitatory synapse increases likelihood of action potentials more likely • Binding of neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses makes action potentials less likely What are the most famous neurotransmitters? • Serotonin: handles emotions & motivation; used in antidepressants to prolong serotonin activity; more serotonin = more happy; 15 receptor types • Dopamine: movement, memory, congition  All old people diseases because dopamine affected; Parkinsons drug increase dopamine, Activity, antipsychotic drugs decrease dopamine activity; 5 receptors • GABA– brains inhibitory transmitter; antianxiety meds and antiepilepsy meds • Glutamate – excitory neurotransmitter in brain; excess from stroke causes cell death • Norepinephrine – increases memory of emotional/important events; all neurons using norepinephrine originate from locus coerelus • Histamine – arousal and alertness; antihistamine in allergy meds • Endorphins – more happy and less pain; same effect as morphine and heroin • Nitric oxide – dilates blood vessel in brain; only gas What are the types of psychoactive drugs? 1. Stimulants: dopamine, agonists, acetylcholine, norepinephrine agonists a. Increases energy, alertness and activity b. Cocaine, Riddelin,Adderal, nicotine and tobacco 2. Hallucinogens: multiple modes of action, can do a lot of shit a. Induce sensory
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.