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Psych Exam 2 Review (VERY THOROUGH) Ch5-7

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Margaret Ingate

PsychExam2ReviewChapter5DevelopmentWhat do stage theories implyThat thinkingfeelingbehaving is very different in different stages order assumed to be non changingDescribe Piagets four stages of cognitive development1Sensorimotor stage birth2 yearsbehavior is mostly simple motor responses to sensory stimuli2Preoperational stage 27 the child lacks operationswhich are reversible mental processes three typical aspects of preoperational thought are egocentrism difficulty distinguishing appearance from reality and lack of the concept of conservation3Concrete operations 711 children perform mental operations on concrete objects but still have trouble with abstract or hypothetical ideas4Formal operations 11 adolescents develop logical deductive reasoning and systematic planningWhat is the theory of mindan understanding that other people have a mind too and that each person knows some things that other people dont knowWhat is the zone of proximal developmentCreated by Vygotskythe distance between what a child can do alone and what is possible with helpHelp should only be provided to bridge this distanceDiffers from Piaget because Piaget believes the child should discover everything on their ownWhat are Eriksons stages of human development1Infantbasic trust VS mistrust2Toddler 13autonomy versus shame and doubt3Preschool 36initiative versus guilt4Preadolescent 612Industry versus inferiority5Adolescent early teensIdentity versus role confusion6Young adult late teens to early 20sintimacy versus isolation7Middle Adult late 20s to retirementgenerativity versus stagnation8Older adult after retirementego integrity versus despairAccording to Erikson failure to master the task of any stage generally leads to unfortunate consequences that carry over to later stagesWhat are Kohlbergs stages of moral developmentPreconventional Morality1Obedience and punishment2Individualism and ExchangeConventional Morality3Interpersonal relationships4Maintaining social orderPostconventional Morality5Social contract and individual rights6Universal principlesWhat is attachmentthe emotional bond between infant and caretaker that EVOLVED TO PROMOTE THE SURVIVAL OF INFANTSPreattachment birth to a few monthsAttachment in the making 3 months to 6 or 7 months preference for caretaker recognition of familiar peopleClear attachment 8 months to 15 months separation distress stranger anxietyReciprocal relations 15 months on solicits play initiates interactionsWhat does the Strange Situation assessHow securely young children are attached to their primary caregiver
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