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Margaret Ingate

Psychology Exam #1 Study Guide- October 2nd Ch. 1:  Nature vs. Nurture o What contributed to development o Plato vs. Aristotle  Plato  Perception was distorted, incomplete shadow of reality that exists  Aristotle  All knowledge based on perception of the world  Experience is base of all knowledge  Locke  Experiences grow and shape us  Tabula rasa  What do children contribute to their own development? o Do infants/toddlers make informational choices o Behavioral variation is associated with variation of caretaker behavior Ex. Baby always happy, early smiler, easily smiles and laughs- child elicit more affection, caretaker is happier, caretaker feels competent  Does development occur in stages? Or in small steps? o Depends on how often you observe behavior o Frequent intervals- continuous change  History of research about babies and children o Couldn’t treat children worse than dogs- original child abuse laws o Darwin published diary of his child’s development  Documented the course of motor and language development o Piaget published similar documentation  Children achieved object permanence after 7-8 months o Watson  Lttle albert  Fear could be classically conditioned in an infant o Knew little about what was going on in the minds  Booming, buzzing confusion, couldn’t make any sense of sensory information o Franz  Could assess distinctions babies could make  Gave them a choice  Assess on where/what/how long they looked- gaze direction  Piaget o Observations of child behavior were very accurate and robust o 1913- made observations that could easily be replicated now o Theories product of his time  Based on data o Parents asked to remember and write down behavior  Cons- avoid bad behavior; lie o Interview children  May not understand questions o Naturalistic observation  Sit there and records what happens  Cons- might act differently, might not know why, can’t manipulate variables, may not get relevant data, observations are partial and may not be representative of typical behavior o Structured observations  How do development psychologists investigate questions that interest them? o Science is empirical- based on data o Three main contexts for gathering data about child development  Interviews  Naturalistic observations  Structured observations (correlational or experimental) o Scientific research examines relationships between variables  Correlational research: describes the direction and magnitude of relationships between variables  Experimental research: seeks to determine casual relationships  Requires random assignment, experimental control of variables o The study of child development focuses on change  Three temporal approaches  Cross-sectional o Broader approach, studying average differences o Age differences o Different groups of participants representing each age  Longitudinal o More individualized, process of individual change o Study one group o Repeatedly study individuals at different ages o Cons- takes a long time, attrition  Micro-genetic o Variation of longitudinal o Sample behavior very frequently (weekly)  Sequential designs combine cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches  Science seeks to describe, explain, predict o Measures must be reliable o Variables must be operationally defined in terms of the procedures and measures used o Measures must be valid- measure what is intended o Results of studies must be valid  Internal validity- findings reflect relationships between/among independent variables and dependent variables  External validity- findings apply beyond specific sample and experiment  Researchers have studied emergence of smiling and other expressions o Tautermannova (1973)- duration of smiling  Two hour-long periods of observation daily, for two days, at 8 weeks and at 4- week intervals until 24 weeks  Kind of design-  On day 1 the observer stood 1 meter away and recorded behavior without interacting  On day 2, bent over infant, nodded, smiled and talked when infant looked at her  Results- in both “distant presence” and “close presence” condition, smile duration increased with infant age  Examining data from the six 10-minute intervals in each hour, smiling behavior habituated over the hour  Strong individual differences contributed by smile duration in initial 10 minutes  Individual difference likely to elicit more intense emotional reaction from mother or other caretakers o Lavelli & Fogel (2002)  Early face-to-face interaction is believed by many researchers to be the foundation of communication, social cognition, self-regulation and social fittedness  Two theoretical positions  Early ability to regulate the interaction  Late ability to regulate the interaction  Intent: document the process of change in face-to-face interaction in first 14 weeks of life  Dynamic systems approach:  Developmental change results from destabilization of previously stable pattern of behavior  Prediction: inter-dyad differences would emerge around 2-months  Method: 16 mother infant dyads (in Italy)  Weekly 6 minute video-taped interactions, from 1 weeks of age to 14 weeks; two conditions o Baby in mothers arms o Baby propped up on sofa, facing kneeling mother  Behavior of both coded, durations recorded  Results: identified 3 “frames” or stable patterns of joint behaviors  Attention getting  Face-to-face communication o Simple gazing o Active engagement  Calming  Face-to-face communication changed in the first weeks of life  Duration of simple gazing increased until week 4 (on sofa), week 6 (in mother’s arms)  Active engagement emerged as early as 4 weeks; by 7 weeks, was 60% of FTF time  At 8 weeks, two groups emerged; one continued increase in FTF, one decreased FTF  Individual differences in mother infant dyads emerge early  Timing is consistent with prediction of dynamic systems theory  Timing is consistent with “early competence”  Research needs to be extended to explore developmental outcomes o Worrmann et al (2012)  Mother- infant dyads in Germany and Cameroon  Evaluated at 6 weeks and 12 weeks  At 6 weeks, mothers and infants in the two cultures smiled for equal, short times  At 12 weeks, Germany dyads smiled much more  Cultural effects also seen in Japanese/American contrast, Israeli poor vs. middle class  What do we learn? o The
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