Incremental view of intelligence : can be viewed as a single trait g, few separate abilities, or as a large
number of specific processes. Intelligence can increase with experience and effort (dweck)
Contributors to dyslexia: familial: poor environment, lack for strategies to improve phonological skills,
Contributors to dyslexia: cognitive: weakness in phonological processing( ability to discriminate and
remember sounds within words. In dyslexic readers right hemisphere is activated. Slow retrieval
process, lack of integrating visual and auditory data.
School readiness: know the alphabet, phonemic awareness, parents reading to child,
Pre-reading skills: phonemic awareness ( knowledge of the individual sounds within words),
metacognitive understanding, content knowledge
Pre-math skills : exposure to numbers, counting, knowledge of relative sizes of single digits
Freudian psychosexual stages:
Oral: First year, primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is in oral activity mother is the strongest
Anal: 1-3, primary source of pleasure comes from defecation.
Phallic: 3-6, characterized by the location of pleasure in the geneitals.
Latency, 6-12, characterized by the channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable activities.
Genital 12+, sexual maturation is complete, and sexual intercourse is a main goal.
Freudian concepts: fixation : if fundamental needs are not met during any stage, children may become
fixated on these needs, continually attempting to satisfy them.
Self-efficacy : (Bandura) an individuals beliefs about how effectively he or she can control his or her own
behaviors, thoughts and emotions in order to achieve a desired goal. This influences childs choices,
goals, willingness to persist in striving toward goals
Reciprocal determination; (Bandura) argued that child-environment influences operate in both
directions, a mutal influence between the child and others
Bandura : observation and imitation rather than reinforcement. Preschoolers acquire new behaviors
through observing others.
Dweck: Self attributions and achievement motivation: entity/ helpless orientation: a general tendency to attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of
the self and to give up in the face of failure ( belief that intelligence in fixed).
Incremental/mastery orientation: a general tendency to attribute success and failure to the amount of
effort expended and to persist in the face of failure.
Entity theory: think level of intelligence is fixed and unchangeable.
Incremental theory: intelligence can grow as a function of experience (try harder after failure)
Dodge: Information-processing approach focuses on cognitive process in social behavior: 6 steps in
solving social problems:
1. Encoding a problematic event.
2. Interpret/represent the social cues involved.
3. Formulate a goal to resolve the incident.
4. Generate strategies to achieve the goal.
5. Evaluate the potential strategies
6. Enact a behavior.
Selman: role taking: ability to adopt perspective of another person, and better understanding of a
persons behavior, thoughts and feelings.
Stages; stage 1: 6-8 another person can have a different perspective, attrivute this to the other person
not having the same information.
Stage 2: 8-10 children can think about another’s point of view.
Stage 3: 10-12 children can compare their own and others points of view.
Stage 4: 12+ adolescents can compare anothers perspective to that of a generalized other.
infant concepts of object properties
infant/toddler concepts of living things: most young children err in identifying which things are living
and which are not. Most 5 year olds say that plants are not living things. Children often associate things
are alive because they can move. Other investigators say that 5 yeah old children understand the
essential characteristics of livings things and what seperates them from nonliving things. Infants in their
first year distinguish people from other animals and distinguish inanimate objects. At 5 children find it
difficult to understand that people are animals Violations of expectations: looking times are greater when expectations are violated. A procedure used
to study infant cognition in which infants are shown events that should evoke surprise or interest if it
violates something the infant knows or assumes to be true
fast mapping of words to referents: the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from hearing the
contrastive use of a familiar and unfamiliar word. Ex. When showing a child two different colors a red
and an unknown color the child is asked to pick out the chromium tray and the child usually picks the
one that is unknown.
word mapping principles: taxonomic principles: “ that’s not a fish, that’s joey”
mutual exclusivity: leads children to expect that a given entity will have only one name
taxonomic principle: leads children to expect that a word applies to a category not and instance. “that’s
not a fish” “that’s a joey”
social cues to word mapping: toddlers use an adults direction of gaze to infer that the novel label they
hear apllies to the object the adult was looking at when the word was said. Emotional cues, after adult
has announced the intention to find the “blicket” and when the adult looks pleased at an object the
child assumes that the blicket is that object
joint attention: in which toe or more people focus deliberately on the same referent
Gopnick article and experiments described
sensitive periods: critical period for language acquisition. Extreme infant deprivation can only be
overted if it is tended to quickly. Key element in experience-expectant plasticity. The brain is especially
sensisitve to particular kinds of external stimuli, as if a time window was temporarily opened, inviting
enviroment input to help organize the brain
understanding of causality: David Hume, from early in development children rely heavily on their
understanding of causal mechanisms to infer why physical and psychological events occur. Casual
connections: breaking apart a toy, asking why mommy is upset. Siegler study of 1 and 3 year olds tool
use, they were presented with an attractive toy arounds 2 feet away and were placed with 6 different
tools that varied in length in between. To complete the task the toddler needed to understand the
casual relationship that would make one tool more effective that the others for pulling the toy in. 2 year
old succeeded considerably more often thean 1 year olds did in obtaining the toy
experience expectant plasticity: the process throught which the normal wiring of the brain occurs in
part as a result of experiences that every human who inhabits any reasonably normal enviroment will
have. Ex. Children with cataracts, the longer they have the cateracts and inhibit their vision the more
vison impaired they are when the cateracts are removed.
experience dependent plasticity: the process through which neural connections are created and
reorganized throughout life as a function of an individuals experiences.Ex. dyslexic children involved in remedial reading programs in schooling. Children showed marked improvement in their reading ability,
showed increased ability in left-brain areas similar to brain of good readers
social referencing: In which people look to social parteners for information regarding how to act in
novel or emotionally charged situations
social referencing and the visual cliff: social referencing: the use of another’s emotional reacrion to
interpret an ambiguous situation, appears to be important in infants development of wariness of heights
social referencing and autism
first concepts: f=fundamental concepts include time, space, causality, number, and the human mind.
first words: produce first words between 10-15 months of age. Usually names for people, objects and
events from everyday life. Holophrastic period: expresses a “whole phrase” with a single word.
Overextension: usuing a word in a broader context than is appropriate .
hostile attributional bias: (Dodge) the tendency to assume that other people’s ambiguous actions stem
from a hostile intent. (bumped into a table on purpose)
perspective taking, role taking : Dodge, being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby
better understanding that person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings
communication by deaf infants and toddlers: babbling occurs late and is very limited, unless exposed to
sign language which is the production of repetitions of hand movements of ASL signs in a manner
analogous to vocal babbling among hearing infants. If parent s of deaf babies do not use formal sign,
infants make up “ home signs” which is stringed together sign in predictable patterns
cooing and babbling: at 6 to 8 weeks of age drawn out vowel sounds-cooing. As the vocabulary expands
infants learn that their vocalization elicits responses from others. Babbling between 6 and 10 months
infants begin to babble- repeating strings of sounds of a consonant followed by a vowel, becomes more
varies and conforms more to the sounds, rhythm and intonation patterns of the language infants hear
infantile amnesia: fraudian belif that a childs first few years of life and not remembered
dynamic systems theory: emphasizes interaction of many factors: neural, mechanism but also in