Study Guides (238,529)
United States (119,830)
Psychology (529)
01:830:331 (65)

exam 1 terms.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Rutgers University
Margaret Ingate

Infant & Child Development Exam # 1 Review Terms  Active child:  Ages and stages in Piaget’s theories: o Sensorimotor (0-2 years) – know the world through senses and actions; object permanence, imitation  Substages:  Birth-1month: infants begin to modify the reflexes with which they are born to make them more adaptive  1-4 months: infants begin to organize separate reflexes into larger behaviors, most of which are centered on their own bodies.  4-8 months: more interested in the world around them. By end of substage 3, object permanence (knowledge that objects continue to exist even when out of view) typically emerges.  8-12 months: A-Not-B error- the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden. o Preoperational (2-7 years) - acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. Begin perspective taking  egocentrism, centration o Concrete operational (7-12 years) - think logically, not just intuitively. Classify objects into coherent categories and understand greater complexity of causation  Decenter: think in multiple dimensions  Solve conservation problems, but successful reasoning limited to concrete situations.  Thinking systematically remains difficult. o Formal operational (12+ years) - think systematically and reason about what might be as well as what is. Politics, fiction, ethics, religion, science of greater interest.  Think about abstractions and hypothetical situations  Birth weight and developmental outcomes: o Average birth weight- 7-7.5 lbs o Low birth weight- <5.5 lbs (2,500 grams)  LBW infants born at or before 35 weeks after conception are described as premature  Other LBW infants are referred to as small for gestation age (SGA) when their birth weight is substantially less than the norm for their gestational age.  Experience more medical complications, more developmental difficulties, and present special challenges for parents.  Majority of LBW babies catch up  Extensive parent contact and more touch for infants in neonatal intensive care are widely used interventions. o Very low birth weight- <3.3 lbs (1,500 grams)  Higher rates of neurological problems, sensory problems, cognitive problems.  Centration: the tendency to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event. o Ex. Balance scale (pg. 137)  Cephalocaudal development: the pattern of growth in which the areas near the head develop th earlier than areas farther from the head (4 week +)  Conservation errors: (ages 2-7) o Conservation concept- the idea that merely changing the appearance of objects does not change their key properties. o Ex. Liquids changing glasses, think there’s more than there was before due to appearance  Core-knowledge theories: *approaches that emphasize the sophistication of infants’ and young children’s thinking in areas that have been important throughout human history.  Early deprivation effects: Romanian orphans; had little social interaction, physical movements, malnourished  Egocentrism: the tendency to perceive the world solely from one’s own point of view  Experience dependent plasticity: the process through which neural connections are created and reorganized throughout life as a function of an individual’s experiences. o Which variants of normal functions develop  Speaking English or Spanish rather than Hindi  “American” norms of eye-contact  Liking playing tennis rather than knitting  Loving hot peppers more than French fries  Experience- expectant plasticity: the process through which the normal wiring of the brain occurs in part as a result of experience that every human who inhabits any reasonably normal environment will have. o Vulnerability: if experience is not available, development will be impaired  Congenital cataracts  Congenital deafness  Severe social deprivation  External validity: the degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: the harmful effects of maternal alcohol consumption on a developing fetus. o FAS involves a range of effects including:  Facial deformities  Mental retardation  Attention problems  Hyperactivity  Fetal learning: o Newborn infants have been shown to recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth  Also prefer smells, tastes, and sound patterns that are familiar because of prenatal exposure  Fetal risk factors: o Teratogens- an external agent that can cause damage or death during prenatal development  Dose-response relationship  Increases in exposure are associated with greater probabilities of fetal defects and with more severe problems  Total exposure may not be the critical factor o Heavy infrequent exposure may be more damaging than more frequent low exposure o Drugs, environmental pollutants, maternal disease and health  Gene functions: o
More Less

Related notes for 01:830:331

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.