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Abnormal Psych Review Chapters 4, 5, 6, 1, and 12 1 Personality Disorders Cluster A Personality Disorders (odd or eccentric) • Paranoid Personality Disorder • Excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others • Tend not to confide in others and expect others to do them harm • Schizoid Personality Disorder • Show a pattern of detachment and limited range of emotions • Seem aloof, cold, and indifferent • Schizotypal Personality Disorder • Typically socially isolated and behave in unusual ways • Tend to be suspicious and have odd beliefs about the world Cluster B Personality Disorders (dramatic, emotional, or erratic) • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Perform unacceptable actions and fail to comply with social norms • Tend to be irresponsible, impulsive, and deceitful • Criteria focuses on observable behaviors • Related concept of psychopathy focuses on personality traits • Borderline Personality Disorder • Lack stability in their moods and relationships • Usually have low self-esteem and are at great risk of suicide • Histrionic Personality Disorder • Tend to be overdramatic and appear to be acting • Narcissistic Personality Disorder • Think highly of themselves • Become upset when critiqued Cluster C Personality Disorders (anxious or fearful) • Avoidant Personality Disorder • Extremely sensitive to the opinions of others • Fear of rejection causes then to reject the attention of others • Dependent Personality Disorder • Rely on others to make all of their decisions for them • Results in an unreasonable fear of being abandoned • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder • Preoccupation with details and things being done “the right way” • Personality Disorders are difficult to treat Key T erms • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) - a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder that involves controlled situationto stressors in a Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Clinical Description and Symptoms • inappropriate emotionsions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and • Symptoms • Positive • An excess distortion of normal behavior (delusions and hallucinations) • Negative • Involve deficits in normal behavior (affect, speech, and motivation) • Disorganized • Rambling speech, erratic behavior, and inappropriate affect Subtypes • Paranoid Subtype • Prominent delusions and hallucinations • Disorganized subtype • Tend to show marked disruption in speech and behavior • Show flat or inappropriate affect • Catatonic Subtype • Unusual motor responses (ex: waxy flexibility) • Display odd mannerisms with body and face • Un-differentiated Subtype • Do not fit neatly into any of the 3 specific subtypes • Residual Subtype • Have had at least 1 schizophrenic episode, but no longer have major symptoms Related Disorders • Schizophreniform Disorder • People who experience the symptoms of schizophrenia for < 6 months • Schozoaffective Disorder • People who have symptoms of schizophrenia and exhibit the characteristics of mood disorders • Delusional Disorder • schizophrenia persistent belief that is contrary to reality, and no other symptoms of • Brief Psychotic Disorder • People with 1 or more positive symptoms of schizophrenia over the course of < 1 month • Shared Psychotic Disorder • Delusions develop as a result of a close relationship with a delusional individual Prevalence and Causes of Schizophrenia • Causes include genetic influences, neurotransmitter imbalances, structural damage to the brain from prenatal or birth, and psychological stressors • Relapse is triggered by hostile family environments with high expressed emotion T reatment of Schizophrenia • Successful treatment rarely includes complete recovery • Combining antipsychotic medications with psychosocial approaches (employment support, and community- based and family interventions) • Effectiveness is limited since it is a chronic disorder Key T erms • Hebephrenia - silly and immature emotionality • Demetia Praecox - early label for schizophrenia • Associative Splitting - separation among basic functions of human personality • Avolition - an inability to initiate or persist in important activities • Algogia - a deficiency in the amount or content of speech • Anhedonia - an inability to experience pleasure • Flat Affect - an apparently emotionless demeanor • Expressed Emotion (EE) - hostility, criticism, and over-involvement demonstrated by some families toward a family member with a psychological disorder Anxiety Disorders The Complexity of Anxiety Disorders • uncontrollable dangerriented state which focuses on the possibility of • Fear is a present-oriented state that provokes a surge in the current dangeranch of the autonomic nervous system in response to • A panic attack represents the alarm response of real fear without actual danger • Can be: • unexpected (without warning) • situationally bound (always occurring in a certain situation) • situationally predisposed (likely, but unpredictable in specific situation) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) • Anxiety focuses on minor everyday events instead of one major worry • be effective in the long-term; in the long-term, drugs may be no more effective than placebos Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia • A fear and avoidance of situations considered to be “unsafe” • Anxiety is focused on the next panic attack • Both drug and psychological treatments have proven successful • Control treatments concentrate on exposing patients to clusters of sensations that remind them of their Specific Phobia • Fear is focused on a particular object or situation • Can be acquired by experiencing a traumatic event, learned vicario, or even taught • Treatment is straightforward (ex: systemized desensitization) Social Phobia • Fear of being around others, especially during “performances” • Causes are similar to those of specific phobia • Treatment includes rehearsing or role- playing socially phobic situations; drug treatments have also been effective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Focuses on avoiding thoughts/images of past traumatic experiences • Precipitating cause if a traumatic experience, and it depends on the intensity of the experience • Treatment involves reexposure to the trauma and establishing a sense of safety Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • Focuses on avoiding frightening or repulsive intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and using ritualistic those thoughtslsions) to neutralize • Most effective treatment is exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) Key T erms • that responds to threat signals and causes anxiety in the limbic system • Fight/Flight System (FFS) - elicits an alarm and escape response resembling human panic • Agoraphobia - anxiety about being in situations where escape could be impossible • Panic Control Treatment (PCT) - gradual exposure to feared somatic sensations and modifications of attitudes about them • their parent while they’re apartar that harm will come to the child or • Acute Stress Disorder - severe reaction immediately following a terrifying event Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Somatoform • Nonmedical basDisordersysical symptoms • Types: • Hypochondriasis - belief that the individual is seriously ill and become anxious over that possibility • Somatization Disorder - unceasing and wide-ranging pattern of physical complaints that dominate the individual’s life and interpersonal relationships • Conversion Disorder - physical malfunctioning without any apparent physical problems • Pain Disorder - psychological factors play a role in physical suffering • Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) - preoccupation with some imagined deficit in appearance • Facticious Disorder - when a person’s symptoms are feigned • Causes and Treatment • Causes are not well understood • meant to reduce stress and remove any secondary gain for the behaviorort to those Dissociative • Alterations in perception and a sense of detachment • Types: Disorders • Depersonalization Disorder - individual’s sense of personal reality is temporarily lost • Dissociative Amnesia - individual may be unable to remember important personal information • Generalized Amnesia - individual is unable to remember anything • Localized Amnesia - more common; unable to recall events from a specific period • Dissociative Fugue - memory loss is combined with an unexpected trip • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) - alters are created • Dissociative Trance Disorder - culturally determined • Causes and Treatment • Causes are not well understood, but may come from a traumatic experience • therapeutic manner to better coping skillsxperience the traumatic event(s) in a controlled • For DID, treatment is often long-term and may include antidepressants; there also must be trust between the patient and therapist Mood Disorders Understanding Mood Disorders • Mood disorders are among the most common psychol
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