final exam study guide chapters 1-15

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Rutgers University
Professor Lyra Stein

Chapter 1Psychopathology symptoms and signs of mental disorders scientific study of mental disordersAbnormal Behavior the application of psychological science to the study of mental disordersDSM5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDimensional vs categorical approaches Categorical do you meet diagnostic criteria or not Dimensional abnormal behavior is constantly changingComorbidity the presence of more than one condition within the same period of timeCognitive Behavioral TherapyPsychoanalysis Freuds methods believed the root of abnormal behavior result from experiences within the 5 years of life behavior controlled by biology sexual urges and the unconscious parental influences 3 regions of the mind ID ruled by pleasure principle think of this as demanding child Ego incorporates conscious and unconscious think of it as traffic cop mediates between ID wants and reality Superego imposes moral restraint onto the ID think of this as judge superego can stop you from doing certain things that your ID may want to doBiochemical approachHumanistic approach Carl Rogers believed abnormal behavior all starts when ones self image and actual self are incongruent therefore limiting ones full potentialBiopsychosocial model A theory is proposed that not just one factor contributes to the development of abnormal behavior but many factors are important to considerThe theory allows mental health professionals to obtain information from a variety of sources by working collaboratively to provide quality treatment to focus on each area being impacted by the abnormal behaviorDiathesisStress model referring to the fact that abnormal behaviors may have a biological basis meaning issues concerning brain functionsChapter 2Translational research a scientific approach that focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical researchRandom AssignmentCorrelation positivenegative close to 1 or 1 is positive correlation and close to zero is a negative correlationExperiment independentdependent variables independent is the variable that is being manipulatedcontrolled the dependent variable is the outcomes being assed by the independent variableExperimental groupcontrol group control group is the group that nothing is happening toInternal validity the extent to which the study design allows conclusions about the independent variable caused the dependent variableExternal validity ability to generalize findings to situations or people outside the studyEpidemiology focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders Observational epidemiology documents the presence of physical or psychological disorders in human populationsstructured interview format Experimental epidemiology method in which scientist manipulated exposure to either causal or preventative factorsPrevalence number of cases of a disorder in a given population point prevalence number of cases at a specific period of time lifetime prevalence number of cases in a lifetime individual is know to have the disorderIncidence number of new cases in a population in a specific period of timeEmpirically supported treatmentsChapter 3Purpose of clinical assessment process of collecting and interpreting info that will be used to understand another personReliability testretest consistencyValidity how accurate constructmeasures what it should measure criterion correlation with other measures concurrentmeasures given at the same time predictivehow well does it predict an outcomeClinical interview Clinical interview conversation between interviewer and patient purpose is to gather info and make judgments related to assessment goals most commonly used assessment structured clinician asks standard question unstructured clinician decided what questions to ask and how to ask them semistructuredMMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory most widely used and researched standardized test for adult personality and psychopathology empirical keying clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologiesProjective tests Rorschach Inkblot Test patient is exposed to ambiguous stimuli and then project unique interpretation onto them that reflect hisher unconscious processes and conflicts comprehensive system of internal validity more reliably then valid thematic appreciation test consist of 31 black and white pictorial cards and patient is asked to make up a story about themDiagnosis categorical dimensional identification of illnessLimitations of classification hinder the consideration of promising alternative classification systems doesnt classify problems into syndromes in the simplest most beneficial wayChapter 4Anxiety response orientation toward future common emotion characterized by physical symptoms and thought or worries that something bad will happenPanic attacks cuedexpected through trigger uncuedunexpected false alarm sudden overwhelming experience of terror or fright
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