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01:830:101- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 69 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:101
Professor
B.Nolan
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:830:101
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Gen Psych Exam 1 Study Guide
The Brain
A. The hindbrain: Vital functions
Brain stem - located at base of skull; old part of brain
Medulla - regulates breathing and heart rate; autonomic functions b. Pons - involved in
sleeping, walking, and dreaming
Reticular activating system - network of neurons, extends upward and connects with
higher brain areas; screens information, responsible for arousal and alertness
Cerebellum - regulates balance and coordination of movement
B. The midbrain: Important way stations - neural tracts running to and from the upper and lower
portions of the brain
C. The forebrain: Emotions, memory, and thought
Thalamus - directs incoming sensory messages to higher centers a. Sense of smell is the
only sense bypassing the thalamus
Information about smell goes to the olfactory bulb
Hypothalamus - associated with drives, such as hunger, thirst, emotion, sex and
reproduction, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system
Pituitary gland - "master gland" governed by hypothalamus
Limbic system - loosely interconnected structures involved in emotions
Amygdala - evaluates sensory information to determine its importance, may be involved
in anxiety and depression
Hippocampus - "gateway to memory," compares sensory feedback with expected
feedback
Cerebrum - responsible for higher forms of thinking
Divided into 2 halves or cerebral hemispheres
Connected by band of fibers called corpus callosum
Right hemisphere in charge of left side of body
interpretation
Left hemisphere in charge of right side of body
Spatial orientation
language
Lateralization - each hemisphere has somewhat different tasks and talents
Covered by layer of densely packed cells - cerebral cortex
Grayish appearance = gray matter
made up of cell bodies of nerve cells
"white" matter beneath cortex is formed by myelinated axons
Contains 3/4 of all cells in the brain
Divided into 4 regions
Occipital lobes - contain the visual cortex
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Parietal lobes - contain somatosensory cortex, that receives
information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature from all
over the body
Temporal lobes - contain auditory cortex & language
Frontal lobes - contain the motor cortex; responsible for making
plans, taking initiative and thinking creatively
Split brains
Corpus callosum, which connects the cerebral hemispheres in normal brains, is
severed
Effects
Split-brain patients are able to lead normal lives
Effects on perception and memory are observable under
experimental conditions
Different Scans
PET: Positron Emission Tomography
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
EEG: Electroencephalogram
CAT: Computerised Axial Tomography
Chemical messengers in the nervous system
Neurotransmitters: Versatile couriers
Dozens have been identified, more are being found
Each binds only to certain types of receptor sites
Better understood neurotransmitters and some of their effects
(1) Serotonin - sleep, mood, and more
(2) Dopamine - movement, learning, memory, and emotion
(3) Acetylcholine - muscle action, memory, and emotion
(4) Norepinephrine - heart rate, learning, and memory
(5) GABA - major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
(6) Glutamate - important excitatory neurotransmitter
Levels that are too high or too low may produce problems
(1) low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine associated with depression
(2) elevated levels of serotonin associated with autism
(3) abnormal GABA levels associated with sleep and eating disorders and
convulsive disorders
(4) loss of cells that produce dopamine associated with Parkinson's
disease - grafting of dopamine-producing tissue into brain may help
Parkinson's patients
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