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01:830:101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Implicit Memory, Circadian Rhythm, Allostasis

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1. Asperger’s Syndrome – Highly functioning individuals on the autism spectrum:
have no language deficiency.
2. Autism - developmental (main symptoms)
- Impaired social abilities, communications
- Restricted Interests
- Repetitive behavior
- if a child fails to develop language before the age of 4
- start off with large brains, smaller than normal later in life
- high heritability, at least 26 genes implicated.
3. Paranoid Schizophrenia - Elaborate hallucinations and delusions, particularly of
persecution and grandeur.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia - prominent movement disorder; either rigid inactivity
or excessive activity.
5. Anhedonia - Inability to experience pleasure from that which you did before.
6. Schizophrenia - a deterioration of daily activities, including work, social
relations, self-care; it is a developmental disorder. Dopamine destruction of
neurons in the brain, have large ventricles (holes), constantly damaging the brain.
7. Mania - The opposite of depression: active, uninhibited. Lithium is most common
method of treatment.
8. Bipolar II Disorder – episodes of major depression and hypomania (milder form
of mania)
9. Bipolar I Disorder – have had at least one episode of mania
10. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy & other treatments – People feel better after
2 weeks. Others: bright light, exercise, seafood, sleep deprivation.
11. Early depression vs late depression – before 30 years old, probably have family
history vs after 50 years old, probably family history of blood circulation
12. Axis 4 – Childhood abuse would be described in which axis of DSM-IV scale

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13. Methadone – In certain doses will give the same high as heroin; a pill which
addresses withdrawal symptoms.
14. Opiate vs Opioids – Opiate comes from opium (the plant), while opioids are
synthetically made with the same chemical composition as opiates.
15. Antabus (disulfuram)A drug that if you take it & drink alcohol you will get
very much sick. Blocks acetaldehyde and dehydrogenase.
16. Type 2 alcoholics - largely male, start abusing alcohol early in life, often have
legal issues. Have a very high rate of abstinence from alcohol when using SSRI’s.
17. Type 1 alcoholics - male or females, start abusing alcohol at a later age, it’s very
gradual, they are not likely to have criminal issues.
18. Partly Operant Conditioning - Seeking an experience that has been rewarding
in the past.
19. Nucleus accumbens - The part of the brain responsible for the reward feeling
system. Respond to SURPRISE events (it’s about attention), but not to pleasant
events. Also active when you are seeking for addictive substances.
20. Cleaning vs. Checking Compulsions - Cleaning leaves people feeling better
whereas checking does not.
21. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Obsession & compulsion; typically runs in
family, but no gene found to associate with it. 2-3% prevalent in US
22. Compulsion - repetitive, almost irresistible action. Obsessions lead to
compulsions, like an itch leads to a scratch. Exposure therapy works best.
23. Obsession – repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought.
24. Systematic desensitization - A method of reducing fear by gradually exposing
people to the object of their fear. Similar to Skinner’s shaping procedure: reward
of successive approximations of behavior; virtual reality also proves as successful
25. What is the biggest fear of panic disorders - Fear of losing control.
26. Avoidance behavior - Once you avoid a punishment you experience a reward, so
the more you find yourself avoiding an experience, the harder it is to treat it
27. Symptoms of a panic disorder – Sweating, rapid breathing, heart rate, dizziness,
nausea, shaking, faintness.

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28. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) – Going through the motions of something
like someone who is not affected by anxiety disorder will help function as
someone who doesn’t have one.
29. GAD Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Almost constantly plagued with
exaggerated worries. Causes tension, irritability, relationship problems; people
tend to have depression & panic attacks when they have GAD. Respond well to
antidepressants & CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy)
30. Where are anxiety disorders most commonly diagnosed? - India, followed by
31. DSM-IV Classifications
Axis 1: Mental disorders that represent some deterioration of function.
Axis 2: Personality Disorder and Mental retardation. A stable IQ below 70.
Axis 3: general medical conditions (diabetes, alcoholic cirrhosis, etc.)
Axis 4: psychological and environmental problems (like someone who
suffered from child abuse)
Axis 5: global assessment of functioning: suicidality (1) to happy &
productive (100)
32. James Brussels – Compared criminal profiling abilities of professional profilers,
chemistry majors, psychics, police/firefighters. All did about the same, psychics
did worse, professional profilers did a bit better.
33. Stroop Emotional Test – Say color of each word, people who feared snakes took
longer to say color of the word snake.
34. Thematic Apperception Test - A person is shown a picture then asked to make
up a story. Evaluation of what is said is inconsistent, only good for an opener.
35. The Barnum Effect - Answering a question one way and then answering the rest
the same way.
36. The Myers-Briggs Type indicator - A test of normal personality types based on
Carl Jung’s theories.
37. NEO-PI-RAn objective personality test designed to asses the Big Five
personality traits. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness,
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