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01:830:123 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Naomi Oreskes, Terror Management Theory, Mortality Salience

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Kierkegaard claimed that when you realize that you exist you experience both awe and dread
The function occupying valued roles plays in life is that it gives “a sense of being connected t
the cultural worldview, self-esteem; and… a consequent reprieve from ruminations about death
Terror management theory states that since humans are aware of their inescapable deaths, the
terror that comes with the end of life is managed by cultural worldviews
The ought self is the internalized superego. The ought-self covaries with anxiety.
Rogers was able to create correlations and draw conclusions about how similar or distinct the
individual's real self and ideal self are.
Undedired and ideal- They are orthogonal in that being farther from one doesn’t necessarily
make you closer to the other. You can be close to both, or far from both.
Becker- self-esteem helps protect you from the idea of death, cannot get it on our own
known for having said that humans are unique because we can imagine things that don’t
exist and realize them to alter our realities all thanks to our forebrain
Worldview defense- the exaggerated evaluations for similar or different others following mortality salience
Objective self forms by 18 months
Panpsychism- The idea that every system has some degree of consciousness
the two factor theory of emotion- Physiological Arousal and Cognitive Labels
Classical conditioning- conditioning usually forms the basis for emotions
behavioral inhibition fully developed- 25 yrs old
Musolino- religious individuals and scientists are alike since both groups possess real beliefs
and are both attempting to figure out how the world works, who we are, how we function, and
what our roles are
The three reasons why the deductive nomological method is wrong based on Naomi Oreskes
are the fallacy of affirming the consequent, auxiliary hypotheses, and that a lot of science does
not fit the standard model
Isomorphism is like a bridge that connects the subjective reality to objective reality, which allows
people with this type of argument to say that if it is perceived it is true, and it might seem true
but really isn’t.
Qualia is the internal and subjective aspect of perception of the senses.
Emotion is processed in the limbic system.
the Cannon-Bard Theory and the James-Lange Theory. The first theory states that if you see a
threatening object (snake) you feel scared which causes your body to become aroused
adrenaline) and then you run. The second theory disagrees with the first one a little and
states that if you see a threatening object, your body unconsciously gets aroused first
you feel scared so you run as a result.
Descartes error was that he said “I think, therefore I am,” when Damasio believes it
should have been, “I feel, therefore I am.”

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Damasio: Unpleasantness in Vermont
The most important part of this article is that Gage’s personality and planning abilities were
dramatically changed while his movement, sensory abilities and other functions recovered
almost fully. Importance of frontal lobe.
It teaches us that damage to the frontal lobe affects decision making and planning
(EX: Phineas Gage). In Gage's case, planning and making decisions was effected, but
his movement and sensory abilities recovered almost fully.
Self-esteem- the belief that one is a valuable contributor to the universe
Cultural worldview- Provide beliefs about the nature of reality that assuage our anxiety
associated with the awareness of death
Anxiety buffer- two components:
-faith in a meaningful conception of reality(the cultural worldview)(religion)(occupying valued roles)
-belief that one is meeting the standards of value prescribed by that worldview (self-esteem)
(close interpersonal connections)
Mortality salience- asking people to ponder their own mortality
Worldview defense- our exaggerated defense of similar and different others following
mortality salience (we like people who have the same beliefs as us and dislike people
who do not)
Five mitigating factors
-worldviews that value tolerance
-self-esteem (not narcissism)
-common humanity: we are family
-teach these souls to fly! (feel invulnerable; immortal if you imagine yourself flying)
-"There is only one liberty, to come to terms with death. After which,
everything is possible"
Otto Rank- "only human beings make the unreal real". Proposed that humans
create the soul to compensate for the fact that they do not like being labeled
as just physical beings
Ernst Becker- -cultural anthropologist
-wrote about the nature of the soul
-motivational perspective: why do people do the things they do when they do them
-4 assumptions:
-cast intellectual net as widely as possible in a big idea
-consider all ideas but not all ideas are created equally (some are better than others;
we must test our ideas)
-practical; ideas are interesting and useful

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-position all ideas in the direction of Darwin's theory of natural selection
-3 facts that scare humans: I will someday die, I can die at anytime, I am a breathing piece
of meat (animal) said that humans are unique because we can imagine things that don't
exist and realize them to alter our realities all thanks to our forebrain
Independent & dependent-
-independent variables(being manipulated): death salience and exam salience instruction,
at best salience, at worst salience
-dependent variables: support the president survey under the threat of death you
endorse your cultural values. Hence, people who wrote about death supported
bombing people who killed people in their culture
variables on TMT studies-
-Anxiety and Self-Esteem
-Death vs. Uncomfortable/unpleasant experiences (then; rate how much they like
other people in the room based on whether they had the same religious beliefs)
(reminders of death alter your opinions on people around you)
Self-Discrepancy score- the correspondence between the real self (who we are at that time)
and the ideal self (how they want to be)
Ideal self- -who we want to be
-begins with Freud; internalized notion of who we would like to be
-males: identify with the father with the prospects of marrying someone
like their mother (vise versa with girls)
-push from the past
-Adler: "pulled by the future" (ideal self represents goals)
-there will be tension if we reach our ideal self(why we continue to make new goals)
-happiness and sadness provoking
Undesired self -
-more likely to be based on real experiences
-good assessment of the real self
-me at my worst
-related more closely to satisfaction
-better understanding for self evaluation: we have already been in the undesired self,
we never reach the ideal self
Mortality salience- asking people to ponder their own mortality
Self-actualization - -maslow and rogers
-prepared to expand ourselves and be who we really are but we can turn our self
evaluation over to other people
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