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01:830:271 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Confounding, Current Science, Muscle Tone

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PrinDev S17 Unit 1 Lecture Study Guide
(Part 1: Classes 1-5)
1. Research has found that taking notes by hand is better than taking them on a laptop.
2. What do theories do? Why are they important?
Explain behavior, state of affairs, language
Predict behavior
3. What does it mean that a theory is
Empirically sound logically sound; can’t be contradictory to current science
Testable can be tested or have research done to prove if it is accurate
Falsifiable can be tested in a way that the theory can be wrong
4. What are the 3 major developmental issues?
Continuous vs. Discontinuous
Nature vs. Nurture
Stability vs. Change
5. What are the basic arguments made by the two sides of each issue?
Continuous vs. Discontinuous development being continuous (no major changes) vs.
different stages of development such as going from crawling to walking
Nature vs. Nurture biology is the reason behind personality vs environment is the
reason for personality
Stability vs. Change development occurs throughout the early lifespan vs.
development occurs as life goes on
6. Where does Freud stand on each of the issues?
Freud believed that development occurred early in life and that you just got used to the
7. Erikson’s theory was based in part on Freud’s. A major difference is that Erikson’s theory
proposes that new stages arise throughout the entire lifespan, while Freud’s final stage takes
place during puberty. This means they differ in their stance on which issue?
They differ on the issue of development at a certain time in life
Freud more focused on sex (that’s why it ends at puberty)
Erikson focused on social aspects of development
8. Which issue do they clearly agree on?
That most development occurs in the early stages of life
The unconscious mind plays an important role in the personality development
9. How does the H.O.M.E. illustrate the difficulty of distinguishing between genes and
10. Name/describe two major flaws (“cons”) of the cross-sectional design?
Pros quick to develop research
Cons not developmental design because there is no change overtime
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PrinDev S17 Unit 1 Lecture Study Guide
(Part 1: Classes 1-5)
11. What is a cohort effect?
A group of individuals of the same age and same historical experiences can’t
conclude that the reason that individuals of different ages do different things because of
12. Why is the cross-sectional design so commonly used despite its flaws?
Because you can develop research quickly and don’t have to rely on people coming
back to be tested more than once.
13. What’s so great about the longitudinal design?
There is developmental change in the research
14. What are the 2 potential problems with the longitudinal design?
People drop out of study along the way
Time consuming research costs a lot of money
Kids may get used to doing the same study so they get better at it because of practice,
not because of their age
15. A combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs is called __________.
Sequential or Cross-Sequential
16. What can the “diagonals” in this design tell you?
17. Be able to recognize the difference between an experiment and a correlational study.
(What is the defining characteristic of an experiment?)
Experiment there is an IV and a DV
Correlational collect data on two variables & see if there is any relation between them
18. What is a confounding (or third) variable?
A variable that may be effecting the data that is not the independent variable
19. How do experiments reduce the likelihood of confounding variables influencing the results
(as compared to correlational studies)?
Use experiments to determine if one variable caused the other (changing the IV to see if
the DV changes) but in correlational studies you just collect data and see if they are
Experimental control
20. What was the proposed confounding variable in the nightlight/myopia study?
Kids sleeping with night lights could be a confounding variable as to why they
developed near sided vision
21. What 2 questions do behavior geneticists try to answer?
How much is our behavior effected by nature?
How do genetics and environment work together?
22. Which developmental issue is addressed by behavior geneticists?
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