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01:830:305 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Anatomical Terms Of Location, Propositional Calculus, Parietal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:305
Professor
Professor Feldman
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:830:305
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: Introduction
-Cognitive Psychology is the study of thought
-Intuitions are a source of knowledge though they are sometimes misleading and shouldn't be relied
upon
-Naïve Realism - One of our strongest intuitions states that our perception sees nothing more and
nothing less than seeing the world as it is
-This type of thikig does't take ito accout that e do’t address that fact that our perceptio is
often colored by our expectations and beliefs
-To deal with ambiguity the perceptual system appears to make assumptions about the nature of the
world
-These assumptions are accurate enough that we can successfully get along in our environment
but they are not perfect
-When these fail, they may give rise to perceptual illusions that we may see differently from
reality
-Shape constancy serves us well usually but it can make errors
-Normally we are not aware of the assumptions made by our perceptual system, illusions illustrate that
the perceptual system is normally faced with ambiguous information which interprets by making
assumptions that resolve ambiguity.
-Artificial Intelligence is extremely hard to get out of a computer
-We make assumptions and inferences so readily that we aren't aware of them
-We could say that more possibilities equals more information as long as we are talking about useful
information
-Information Overload is usually meant as a way of taking in too much information and not being able to
filter it.
-Even when the possibilities can be enumerated there may be to many to allow an exhaustive search
-Computational complexity = There are too man possibilities to be considered and no general purpose
way of resolving ambiguity
-We are special purpose devices exquisitely tuned to the demands of our environment
LEARNING
-The point of joint learning is far from trivial
-A child may not know that your referring to a rabbit as a type of animal when you point at it. He
could infer a property of said rabbit or a trait of it
-To cope with the possibilities or ambiguities, organisms seem to come prepared with certain biases or
expectations
-Preferences, at least for humans, make some things harder to learn than others
-Some of these biases may be inborn, learned from others, others may be dependent on an interaction
of nature and nurture.
-People do not have sufficient information to choose between competing explanations
-In the absence of definitive information we cannot ask whether these attributions were logically
justified but rather they are often accurate enough to prove usefull
-Determining the relevance of information is not usually easy and retrieving it quickly is even harder for
that matter
-Much of human cognition can be seen as a response to information processing demands.
-People often settle for the good rather then the best or "optimal decisions (Herbert Simon describes
this as "satisfice")
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-Measured against optimal ideals, human cognition falls short, oversimplifies, and leads to systematic
misperception
Experience and Experimentation
-We accept something as true by evaluating its plausibility of what is true
-Empiricism= The view that knowledge is derived directly from experience
- Francis Bacon was severely punished for suggesting that experience is one of the best ways for
understanding(eg. With counting the horses teeth in mouth)
- One of the wrongs of observations is the tenacity of our beliefs which bring certain biases to question
-A biased search for information can lead to an even more distorted view of the evidence that confirms
one's preexisting view.
-Self-fulfilling prophecy = People may act on their beliefs in such a way that they bring about the
expected state of affairs
-A third problem with observations is the lack of comparison conditions.
-Observations can be useful but they can also be misleading
-Scientific observations should be in essence ,repeatable.
-A second major feature of scientific observation is that it is in principle, self-correcting
-This means that we require observations to be testable
-Most of the aphorisms that we hear are true but the real question is at what point in time they are
actually true
-The factors that are varied are known as the independent variables and the factors that are measured
are known as the dependent variables
-caffeine would be the indep. Variable and the amount of caffeine given would be varied: memory
would be dep. Variable and it would be measured.
-Cognitive psychology is committed to relying on systematic experimentation and empirical tests of
ideas but not always clear about how to go about generating relevant experiments
-Researchers had to develop and rely on measures that are quite subtle and indirect to develop theories
of cognition
-Learning from experience may be far from easy because of our inability to control for potentially
confounding factors.
Roots of Cognitive Psychology
-Not until the latter half of the 19th century did people begin to apply the scientific method to human
thought and behavior
-Wilhelm Wundt founded the first lab for psych research in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
-Problem is that we often don't have conscious awareness of cognitive processes
-We cannot understand differences if don't understand similarities. In essence, they are equally
important.
-Introspectionism = The idea that trained observers could overcome these limitations by careful analysis,
much the same way that trained observers might successfully analyze shading techniques and cues to
depth in paintings.
-Adopted about a century ago when experimental psych was getting its start in Germany
-Wundt believed that thought could be analyzed into its substructures or elements.
-Titchener attempted to eliminate info that goes beyond what was given directly, his goal was to
understand the basic structure of perception and thought.
-Helmholtz argued that perceptual processes involve unconscious inferences and Sigmund Freud
emphasized unconscious influences on behavior.
-Wurzburg stated that there were severe limitations on the data that could be obtained through
introspection.
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