[01:830:311] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (68 pages long!)

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Rutgers
01:830:311
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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I. What is Learning?
A. Learning
1. Acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors
2. Process of change that occurs as a result of an organism's experience
B. Change
1. Change is the focus and need for survival
2. The ability to modify behavior to suit demands of environment is key
C. Process- Events that change behavior
D. Product- Long term changes in behavior
E. No one style of learning
1. Not specific to student
2. Not specific to classroom
3. Not specific to age
4. Not specific to humans
F. Process of Learning Spoken Words
II. Simple to Complex Learning
A. Simple Learning
1. Involve a single stimulus
2. Stimulus: Anything perceptible to the sight, sound, smell, touch, taste
B. Complex Learning
1. Pavlovian Conditioning
a) People learn to associate two stimuli that occur in sequence
(1) Ex: Lighting followed by thunder
2. Operant Conditioning
a) People and animals learn by observations
(1) Watching others perform
3. Methodological Aspects of the Study of Learning
a) Scientific Method
(1) Step 1: State the problem
(2) Step 2: Research the problem
(3) Step 3: Form a hypothesis
(4) Step 4: Test the problem
(5) Step 5: Draw Conclusions
b) The Experiment
(1) An experiment involves a set of controlled conditions that
aims to confirm a hypothesis
(2) Hypothesis: Statement of cause and effect
(3) Experimental Variables
(a) To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the
variables of the hypothesis:
(i) Cause: Independent variable (IV)
(ii) Effect: Dependent variable (DV)
(b) The experimenter manipulates the IV and
measures the DV to test the hypothesis
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c) Judging Scientific Theories
(1) Testability
(2) Simplicity
(3) Generality
(4) Fruitfulness
(5) Agreement with existing data
(6) Publicly verifiable
C. Overview
1. The difference between maturation and learning
2. Simple vs Complex
a) Habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning
b) Learning to talk, learning calculus, learning the history of the Civil
War
III. Emergence of Behavior Theory: Two Kinds of Associative Learning
A. Pavlovian Conditioning
- Emergence of Behavior Theory
- Event-Event Learning
- Describes one type of associative learning between response and
reinforcer
1. Learn to associate two stimuli
2. General Process
a) Organism reacts to stimulus with a reflex
(1) Ex: Loud noise--> flinch
b) Neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex
(1) Ex: Lie podium--> loud noise--> flinch
c) Organism associates two stimuli
(1) Ex: Lie podium and noise
d) Neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex
(1) Ex: Lie podium--> flinch
B. Operant Conditioning
- Emergence of Behavior Theory
- Behavior-Event Learning
- Describes one type of associative learning in which there is a contingency
between the response and the presentation of the reinforcer
1. We learn to associate a response and its consequence
IV. Physio Psych: Sensation and Perception
A. Sensation and perception
1. Sensation: Detection of the physical energy by our sensory organs, which
send that information to the brain
2. Perception: The brain’s interpretation of raw sensory data
B. What is Important
1. Information encoded
2. Physical Structures
3. Neural Receptors
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