01:830:311 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Empiricism

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25 Jan 2018
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CONDITIONING & LEARNING TERMS
CHAPTER 1
Association: a connection between the representations of two events (two stimuli or a stimulus
and a response) such that the occurrence of one of the events activates the representation of the
other
Dualism: the view of behavior according to which actions can be separated into two categories:
voluntary behavior controlled by the mind and involuntary behavior controlled by reflex
mechanisms
Empiricism: A philosophy according to which all ideas in the mind arise from experience
Fatigue: A temporary decrease in behavior caused by repeated or excessive use of the muscles
involved in the behavior
Hedonism: the philosophy proposed by Hobbes according to which the actions of organisms are
determined by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain
Learning: an enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving specific stimuli and/or
responses that results from prior experience with similar stimuli and responses
Maturation: a change in behavior caused by physical or physiological development of the
organism in the absence of experience with particular environmental events
Nativism: a philosophy according to which human beings are born with innate ideas
Nervism: philosophical position adopted by Pavlov that all behavioral and physiological processes
are regulated by the nervous system
Nonsense syllable: a three letter combination (two consonants separated by vowel that has no
meaning
Performance: an organism’s activities at a particular time
Reflex: a mechanism that enables a specific environmental event to elicit a specific response
CHAPTER 2
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