01:830:311 Study Guide - Final Guide: Applied Behavior Analysis, Asteroid Family, Matching Law

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accidental reinforcement An instance in which the delivery of a reinforcer happens to coincide with a particular
response, even though that response was not responsible for the reinforcer presentation. Also called adventitious
reinforcement.
adventitious reinforcement Same as accidental reinforcement.appetitive stimulus A pleasant or satisfying
stimulus that can be used to positively re-
inforce an instrumental response.
aversive stimulus An unpleasant or annoying stimulus than can be used to punish an instrumental response.
avoidance An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental re- sponse prevents the delivery of
an aversive stimulus.
belongingness The theoretical idea, originally proposed by Thorndike, that an organ- ism’s evolutionary history
makes certain responses fit or belong with certain rein- forcers. Belongingness facilitates learning.
conditioned reinforcer A stimulus that becomes an effective reinforcer because of its association with a primary
or unconditioned reinforcer. Also called secondary reinforcer.
contiguity The occurrence of two events, such as a response and a reinforcer, very close together in time. Also
called temporal contiguity.
differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) An instrumental conditioning procedure in which a positive
reinforcer is periodically delivered only if the partic- ipant does something other than the target response.
discrete-trial procedure A method of instrumental conditioning in which the partici- pant can perform the
instrumental response only during specified periods, usually determined either by placement of the participant
in an experimental chamber, or by the presentation of a stimulus.
escape An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response terminates an aversive
stimulus. (See also negative reinforcement.)
free-operant procedure A method of instrumental conditioning that permits repeated performance of the
instrumental response without intervention by the experimenter. (Compare with discrete-trial procedure.)
instinctive drift A gradual drift of instrumental behavior away from the responses re- quired for reinforcement
to species-typical, or instinctive, responses related to the reinforcer and to other stimuli in the experimental
situation.
instrumental behavior An activity that occurs because it is effective in producing a particular consequence or
reinforcer.
interim response A response that increases in frequency after the delivery of a peri- odic reinforcer, and then
declines as time for the next reinforcer approaches.
latency The time between the start of a trial (or the start of a stimulus) and the in- strumental response.
law of effect A rule for instrumental behavior, proposed by Thorndike, which states that if a response in the
presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response
will be strengthened; if the response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened.
learned-helplessness effect Interference with the learning of new instrumental responses as a result of exposure
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to inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation.
learned-helplessness hypothesis A theoretical idea that assumes that during exposure to inescapable and
unavoidable aversive stimulation participants learn that their behavior does not control environmental events.
This reduces motivation to re- spond and disrupts subsequent instrumental conditioning.
magazine training A preliminary stage of instrumental conditioning in which a stimu- lus is repeatedly paired
with the reinforcer to enable the participant to learn to go and get the reinforcer when it is presented. The sound
of the food-delivery device, for example, may be repeatedly paired with food so that the animal will learn to go
to the food cup when food is delivered.
marking procedure A procedure in which the instrumental response is immediately followed by a distinctive
event (the participant is picked up or a flash of light is presented) that makes the instrumental response more
memorable and helps over- come the deleterious effects of delayed reinforcement.
negative contrast Less responding for a less desired or small reinforcer following pre- vious experience with a
more desired or large reinforcer than in the absence of such prior experience.
negative reinforcement An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a negative contingency
between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. If the instrumental response is performed, the
aversive stimulus is terminated or canceled; if the instrumental response is not performed, the aversive stimulus
is presented.
omission training An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the
delivery of a reinforcing stimulus. (See also differential rein- forcement of other behavior.)
operant response A response that is defined by the effect it produces in the environ- ment. Examples include
pressing a lever and opening a door. Any sequence of movements that depresses the lever or opens the door
constitutes an instance of that particular operant.
positive contrast A greater response for a favorable or large reinforcer following pre- vious experience with a
less desired or small reinforcer, than in the absence of such prior experience.
positive reinforcement An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency
between the instrumental response and a reinforcing stimulus. If the participant performs the response, it
receives the reinforcing stimulus; if the participant does not perform the response, it does not receive the
reinforcing stimulus.
punishment An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive con- tingency between the
instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. If the partic- ipant performs the instrumental response, it
receives the aversive stimulus; if the participant does not perform the instrumental response, it does not receive
the aversive stimulus.
response-reinforcer contingency The relation of a response to a reinforcer defined in terms of the probability of
getting reinforced for making the response as compared to the probability of getting reinforced in the absence of
the response.
running speed How fast (e.g., in feet per second) an animal moves down a runway.
secondary reinforcer Same as conditioned reinforcer.
shaping Reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response.
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