01:830:311 Final: Learning Processes Final Review

56 views31 pages
Published on 30 Jul 2018
Department
Professor
Learning Processes Final Review
Chapter 8: Stimulus Control of Behavior
Identification and Measurement of Stimulus Control
o Stimulus discrimination-
We examine how organisms come to respond differently in the presence
of different stimuli
o Stimulus generalization-
We examine how organisms come to respond similarly in the presence of
different stimuli
Generalization gradients
We can study the extent of an organism’s generalization by
presenting it with varying degrees from the training stimuli
S+
o Stimulus then signals the availability of reinforcement
o Excitatory generalization gradient
Stimuli that differ from S+ should be progressively
less effective in evoking the instrumental response
S-
o Stimulus that signals the lack of reinforcement
o Inhibitory generalization gradient
Stimuli that differ from S- should be progressively
less effective in inhibiting the instrumental
response
Hypothetical generalization gradients
o Peaked gradients indicate control of responding
o Flat gradients indicate lack of control of responding
Stimulus and Response Factors in Stimulus Control
o Sensory Capacity and Orientation
Physical limitations of sensory systems
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 31 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Ultrasounds
Infrared light
Orientation
Bottom of mobiles
o Relative Ease of Conditioning Various Stimuli
Overshadowing
The weaker or less salient stimulus will acquire a weaker
response, even though the stimulus would be an adequate CS on
it’s own
Interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the
simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to be
conditioned
Illustrates competition among stimuli for access to the process of
learning
A discriminative stimulus when it is presented alone may exert
some stimulus control over operant behavior
If a discriminative stimulus is accompanied by another, then
stimulus control by the first (or overshadowed) stimulus may be
reduced or eliminated by the second (or overshadowing)
stimulus)
o Type of Reinforcement
Development of stimulus control also depends on the type of
reinforcement that is used
Reinforcement types:
Positive
o Study hard, receive a good grade
Negative:
o Person takes a Tylenol, headache goes away
Compound stimulus:
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 31 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Stimulus presentation of two or more CSs
Control of behavior by combinations of two or more separate
(elemental) stimuli
o Type of Instrumental Response
o Stimulus Elements Versus Configural Cues in Compound Stimuli
Stimulus-element approach
Individuals respond to a compound stimulus in terms of the
stimulus elements that make up the compound
Configural cue approach
Individuals respond to a compound stimulus as an integral whole
rather than a collection of separate and independent stimulus
elements
Configural conditioning: is the whole stimulus compound treated
differently from its individual parts?
Summary:
Under certain conditions, organisms clearly respond to compound
stimuli in terms of the configuration of the elements that make up
the compound
Under certain conditions, organisms respond to stimulus
compounds in terms of the stimulus elements that make up the
compound
Under certain conditions, organisms utilize both cues in guiding
their responses
o Wagner-Brandon theory
Learning Factors in Stimulus Control
o The main issue is the extent to which specific types of training can influence the
specificity of stimulus control of instrumental behavior
o Stimulus Discrimination Training
Stimulus Discrimination Procedure
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 31 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.