01:830:311 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Operant Conditioning Chamber, Run Rate, Classical Conditioning

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30 Jul 2018
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Chapter 4
Rescorla-Wagner Model
o R-W Model: a mathematical model of classical conditioning, in which learning is
conceptualized in terms of associations between conditioned and unconditioned
stimuli
ΔV = k ( λ - V)
Δ= change
V= associative strength of the stimuli that precede US
K= salience off CS and US
( λ - V)= surprisingness of the US; amount of learning that can
happen to a particular US
o 6 rules:
If the strength of the US is greater than the strength of the subject’s
expectation, all CSs paired with the US will receive excitatory conditioning
If the strength of the US is less than the strength of the subject’s
expectation, all CSs paired with the US will receive inhibitory conditioning
If the strength of the US is equal to the strength of the subject’s
expectation, there will be no conditioning
The larger the discrepancy between the strength of the expectation and
the strength of the US, the greater the conditioning
More salient CSs will condition faster than less salient CSs
If two or more CSs are presented together, the subject’s expectation will
be equal to their total strength
o Background:
Acquisition
The initial stage of information processing, in which something is
learned for the first time
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Standard conditioning curves are negatively accelerated, and
changes in conditioning strength are very substantial in early
training
As training proceeds, a leveling-off point (asymptote) is
approached
How much one profits depends on how much one already knows
Blocking
Interference with the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of
the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus
USs are only effective when they were surprising or unpredicted
by CSs
Competition
Explains conditioning with compound stimuli comprising two or
more elements
Associative strength of a compound stimulus is assumed to equal
the sum of associative strength of elements
How can this account for overshadowing?
o If a CS is a compound of two or more stimuli and one is
more salient than the other, then nearly all the condition
occurs to the more salient stimulus
Competitive learning
o The total learning available (λ) must be shared by each
stimulus in a compound; the total amount of learning to
each stimulus is less in a compound than if that stimulus is
alone
Contingency
Can animals detect different degrees of contingency between CS
and US?
o R-M suggests no
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Makes use of background or contextual stimuli as Pavlovian
predictors
Use of random CS and US presentations
o Blocking occurs
Inhibition
Requires a V that is less than zero
o No variables in the equation can ever be negative
Negative contingency
Overexpectation effect
Leads to inhibitory conditioning
Chapter 5
o Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Classical
Operant
o Uses term “response”
o Uses term “behavior”
o Acquisition
o Acquisition
o Spontaneous recovery
o Spontaneous recovery
o Stimulus generalization
o Stimulus generalization
o Based on involuntary reflexive
behavior
o Based on voluntary behavior
o Response is biologically based
(fear or anxiety)
o Behavior is not biologically
based
o Main components: stimulus
and its response
o Main components: behavior
and consequence
o Cannot be used to shape
behavior
o Can be used to shape behavior
o The stimulus causes the
response
o The consequence influences
the behavior
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