01:830:311 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Reinforcement

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
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01:830:311
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Chapter 1: Physio Psych
What is Learning?
o Learning:
Acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors
Proess of hage that ours as a result of a orgais’s eperiee
Change is the focus and need to survival
The ability to modify behavior to suit demands of environment is
key
Process- events that change behavior
Product- long-term changes in behavior
Learning is closely related to memory, which is the storage of information
in the brain
o Many forms of learning, ranging from simple to complex
Simple forms of learning involve a single stimulus
A stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses, such as sight, sound,
smell, touch, or taste
Pavlovian conditioning- (classical conditioning) people learn to associate
two stimuli that occur in sequence
eg. Lighting followed by thunder
Event-event learning- describes one type of associative learning in
which there is no contingency between response and reinforce
Organism reacts to stimulus with a reflex
o Eg. Loud noise flinch
Then, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the
reflex
o Eg. Lie podium loud noise flinch
Organism associates the two simuli
o Eg. Lie podium and noise
Neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex
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o Eg. Lie podium flinch
Operant/Instrumental conditioning- people learn by forming an
association between a behavior and its consequences
Reward or punishment
Describes one type of associative learning in which there is a
contingency between the response and the presentation of the
reinforcer
o We learn to associate a response and its consequence
Other learning- people and animals can also learn by observation
By watching others perform behaviors
More complex forms of learning include learning languages,
concepts, and motor skills
o Methodological aspects of the study of learning
Scientific method
State the problem
Research the problem
Form a hypothesis
o Refers to a statement of cause and effect
Eg. eposure to arijuaa ireases appetite
Test the problem
o Experiment
An experiment involves a set of controlled
conditions that aims to confirm a hypothesis
o Experimental variables
To test a hypothesis, and experimenter defines the
variable of the hypothesis:
Cause: Independent Variable (IV)
o Eg. Marijuana: plain cigarette
containing 5 mg THC
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Document Summary

Loud noise flinch: then, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex, eg. Lie podium loud noise flinch: organism associates the two simuli, eg. Lie podium and noise: neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex, eg. Marijuana: plain cigarette containing 5 mg thc: effect: dependent variable (dv, appetite: grams of ice cream consumed in 1 hour, the experiment manipulates the iv and measures the dv to test the hypothesis, draw conclusions. Inattentional blindness and change blindness are two similar phenomena: visual illusions and perception, eg. Its muscles cause the pupil to dilate or constrict. Pavlovian conditioning: foundations #3: unconditioned stimulus (us, stimulus that naturally triggers a response, stimulus that elicits a particular response without the necessity of training, eg. Puff of air (us) eye eye blink: unconditioned response (ur, unlearned, natural response to the us, a response that occurs to a stimulus without the necessity of prior training, eg.

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