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01:830:338- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 54 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:338
Professor
J.Hudson
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:830:338
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1
Definitions of personality- refers to an individual’s characteristic patterns of thought, emotion,
and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms hidden or not behind those patterns
Psychological Triad- thoughts, feelings, and behavior
Basic approach to personality- limiting your observations to certain kind of patterns and
certain ways of thinking about these patterns
Trait approach- when personality psychologists focus on traits to see how people differ
Biological approach- when personality psychologists focus on biological mechanisms, anatomy
and their relevance to personality.
Phenomenological approach- focusing on people’s conscious experience
Behaviorist approach- focusing on behavior and the ways it can be affected by rewards and
punishments
Learning and cognitive approaches- behaviorism, social learning theory, and cognitive
personality psychology comprise this approach
Funder’s first law- great strengths are usually great weaknesses, and can be the other way
around as well
Barnum Effect- the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character
assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless.
Scientific theories- needs to be distinguished from beliefs
3 levels of personality analysis:
Human Nature- how we are all like each other; traits and mechanism of personality that
are typical of our species and possessed nearly by everyone
Individual and Group Differences- how we are like some others;
Individual- refers to ways in which each person is like some other people
Group- refers to ways in which the people of one group differ from people in
another group
Individual Uniqueness- how we are like no others; refers to the fact that every
individual has personal and unique qualities not shared by any other person
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Chapter 2
Self report data- self judgements, person tells the psychologist to what degree they are friendly,
dominant, etc.
Informant data- judgements by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the
individual's personality
Life outcome data- info that is out for public scrutiny, like clubs you are in, marital status,
criminal record.
Behavior observation data (natural, experimental)- the theoretical view of personality that
focuses on overt behavior and the ways in which it can be affected by rewards and punishments
in the environment. A modern variant is the social learning approach which adds a concern with
how behavior is affected by observation, self-evaluation, and social interaction, aka learning
approach
Self-verification- people work hard to bring others to treat them in a manner that confirms their
idea of themself
self-conception- a person’s knowledge and opinions about herself
Errors- refers to mistakes that occur more or less randomly because memory is not perfect
Bias- refers to something more systematic, such as seeing someone in more positive or negative
terms than they really deserve
Causal force- relationship between cause and effect
Face validity- they appear to measure what is supposed to be measured
Expectancy effect- the tendency for someone to become the kind of person others expect him or
her to be; aka a self-fulfilling prophecy and behavioral confirmation
ambulatory assessment- using computer assisted methods to assess behaviors, thoughts,
feelings, during participant's’ normal daily activities is progressing rapidly
Behavioroid measure
Aggregation- pulling data together; averaging
Spearman-Brown principle- a mathematical formula that predicts the degree to which the
reliability of a test can be improved by adding more items
Reliability- data that measures the same variable consistently
Validity- the degree to which a measurement actually reflects what one thinks or hopes it does
Convergent- a measure that is related to what it should be related to
Discriminant- a measure is not related to what it should not be related to
Generalizability- the degree to which the measure maintains its validity across contexts
Measurement error- cumulative effect of extraneous influences (mood, temp of room, etc.)The
less there is of this error, the more reliable the test becomes
Constructs- an idea about a psychological attribute that goes beyond what might be assessed
through any particular method of assessment.
Construct validity- the extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct-construct
validation
Construct validation- the strategy of establishing the validity of a measure by comparing it with
a wide range of other measures
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