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Final

01:830:338 Study Guide - Final Guide: Surgency, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Collectivism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:338
Professor
Professor Lyra Stein
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter1
Correlation:testingtoseeifthereisarelationshipbetweentwovariables
Theoriesaretestedbysystematicobservationsthatcanberepeatedbyothersandthatyieldsimilar
conclusions
Agoodtheoryisonethatfulfills3purposesinscience:
providesaguideforresearchersdirectingthemtoimportantquestionswithinanareaofresearch
organizesknownfindingsbringscoherenceandunderstandingtotheknownworld
1. makespredictions
Scientificstandardsforevaluatingpersonalitytheories:
1. Comprehensive:explainsmostorallknownfacts
2. Heuristicvalue:guidesresearcherstoimportantnew
discoveries
3. Testability:makesprecisepredictionsthatcanbeempiricallytested
4. Parsimony:containsfewpremisesorassumptions(can'tbetoosimpleeitherbecauseitwon't
fulfilltheotherstandardsofevaluatingtheories,forexample,it'ssosimplethatit'snot
comprehensive)(simple.concise.tothepoint)
 preferencefortheleastcomplicatedexplanationforanobservation
5. Compatibilityandintegration:consistentwithwhatisknowninotherdomains;canbe
coordinatedwithotherbranchesofscientificknowledge
6. Falsifiable:ifitispossibletoconceiveanobservationoranargumentwhichprovesthe
statementinquestiontobefalse
Productive
Nomotheticresearchtypicallyinvolvesstatisticalcomparisonsofindividualsorgroups,requiringsamplesof
subjectsonwhichtoconductresearch(formulategenerallaws)
Nomotheticresearchistypicallyappliedtoidentifyuniversalhumancharacteristicsanddimensionsof
individualorgroupdifferences
Idiographic(translatedliterallyas"thedescriptionofone")researchtypicallyfocusesonasinglesubject,
tryingtoobservegeneralprinciplesthataremanifestinasinglelifeovertime;oftenresultsincasestudiesor
psychologicalbiographyofasingleperson
Chapter2
Objectiveassessments
Selfreportdata:theinformationapersonreveals
canbeobtainedthroughinterviews,periodicreportsbyapersontorecordtheeventsastheyhappen,or
questionnaires
Reliability:degreetowhichanassessmenttoolproducesstableandconsistentresults
Waystoestimatereliability
Repeatedmeasurement
Acommonprocedureistorepeatameasurementovertimeforthesamepeople.Ifthetwo
testsarehighlycorrelated,yieldingsimilarscoresformostpeople,theresultingmeasureissaid
tohavehightestretestreliability
Asecondwayistoexaminetherelationshipsamongtheitemsthemselvesatasinglepointin
time,iftheitemswithinatestallcorrelatewellwitheachother,thenthescaleissaidtohave
highinternalconsistencyreliability
Cronbach'salphaisameasureofinternalconsistencyitisacoefficientofreliability(or
consistency)
theaverageofallpossiblesplithalfcorrelationsinternalconsistencyreliability
Athirdway(applicableonlytotheuseofobserverbasedpersonalitymeasures)istoobtain
measurementsfrommultipleobservers.Whendifferentobserversagreewitheachother,the
measureissaidtohavehighinterraterreliability
Splithalf:thedegreetowhichalternateformsofatestyieldsimilarresults
Validity: 

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PersonalityPsychologyFinalStudyGuide 2
Measures/predictswhatitclaimstomeasureorpredict
Content:thetestappearstomeasurewhatitissupposedtomeasure
theextenttowhichameasurerepresentsallfacetsofagivensocialconstruct
Criterionrelated:Theextenttowhichatestcanpredictaconcurrentorfutureoutcome
Construct:theextenttowhichatesttrulymeasuresatheoreticalconstruct
Correlationalstudies:
statisticalmeasureofhowcloselytwovariablesareassociated(strengthdeterminedbyscatterplot)
Correlationsindicaterelationshippatterns,notcause
Experimentalstudies: 
Researchmethodinwhichtheinvestigatorvariessomefactors,keepsothersconstant,andmeasuresthe
effectsonrandomlyassignedsubject
ControlGroups:
anyconditionofanexperimentinwhichparticipantsarenotexposedtoanindependentvariable
Experimentalgroups: 
conditionsinwhichparticipantsareexposedtoindependentvariable
Randomassignment: 
procedureofassigningsubjectstogroups
Chapter3
Eysenckdevelopedamodelofpersonalitybasedontraitsthathebelievedwerehighlyheritableandhadalikely
psychophysiologicalfoundation.3maintraitsthatmetthesecriteria,accordingtoEysenck,were:
ExtraversionIntroversion
NeuroticismEmotionalStability
Psychoticism 
FactorAnalysis
identifiesgroupsofitemsthatcovaryorgotogether,buttendnottocovarywithothergroupsofitems
providesmeansfordeterminingwhichpersonalityvariablessharesomepropertyorbelongwithinthesame
group 
FiveFactorModel
Extraversion(surgency)
sociability,warmth,assertiveness
Agreeableness
straightforwardness,trust,altruism,modesty
Conscientiousness(lackofimpulsivity)
competence,persistence,prudence
Neuroticism(emotionalinstability)
anxiety,hostility,depression,vulnerability
Openness(opennesstoexperience,culture,intellect)
imagination,aestheticsense,curiosity
ImplicitPersonalityTheories:SchemasthatShapeFirstImpressions
Beliefsaboutwhattraitsorcharacteristicstendtogotogether
Thesetheoriesaresimilartoaschema
Implicittheoriescaninfluencetheimpressionsofothersmorethanpeople’sactualtraits 
Chapter4
PersonSituationInteraction 
twopossibleexplanationsforbehavior:
behaviorisafunctionofpersonalitytraits
behaviorisafunctionofsituation
botharefactors

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PersonalityPsychologyFinalStudyGuide 3
SituationalSpecificity 
·certainsituationscanprovokebehaviorthatisoutofcharacterforanindividual
SituationalSelection
choosingtoeitherenteroravoidcertainsituationstendstorelatebacktopersonalitycharacteristicsofthe
selector
MyersBriggsTypeIndicator(MBTI)
apopularpersonalitytest
Personalityfeedbackstendnottobequiteaccurate
mostwidelyusedpersonalityassessmentdeviceinbusinesssettings
assesseseightfundamentalpreferences,whichreducetofourscores:extravertedvsintroverted,sensingor
intuitive,thinkingorfeeling,judgingorperceiving
fourscorescombinedtoyield16types
Chapter5
SelfEsteem
·Definedbythematchbetweenhowweseeourselvesandhowwewanttoseeourselves
Idealself
·Howyouwishyouwere
Oughtself
whatotherswantustobe
Temperament 
·Individualdifferencesthatemergeveryearlyinlife,areheritable,andinvolvedbehaviorsarelinkedwith
emotionality
CohortEffects
·Changesovertimethatareattributabletolivingindifferenttimeperiodsratherthanto“true”change
Sensationseeking
·Increaseswithagefromchildhoodtoadolescence
·Peaksinlateadolescence,1820
·Fallsmoreorlesscontinuouslywithageafter20s.
Chapter6
Genotype
UnderlyingDNAsequencethatanindividualinherits
Phenotype
Observedindividualdifferences(heightweight,personality)physicalandbehavioral
TwinStudies
Estimateheritabilitybygaugingwhetheridenticaltwinsaremoresimilarthanfraternaltwins 
IfMZtwinsaremoresimilarthanDZtwins,thisisevidenceofheritability 
Monozygotic(MZ)Twins
Identicaltwins;onesinglefertilizedeggshares100%ofgenes 
Dizygotic(DZ)Twins
Fraternaltwins;2separatelyfertilizedeggshares50%ofgenes
Chapter7
OptimalLevelofArousal(Hebb)
alevelofarousalthatisjustrightforanygiventask
(ex.Thereisanoptimallevelofarousalfortakinganexam:focused,alert,attentive)
Introvertsavoidsocialinteractionsthatmightaggravatetheiralreadyoverstimulatedcondition
Iftheyareunderaroused,anincreaseinarousalisrewarding
Ifoveraroused,adecreaseinarousalisrewarding
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