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01:840:211 Study Guide - Final Guide: Human Beings In Buddhism, Creator Deity, Analects


Department
Religion
Course Code
01:840:211
Professor
Jiang
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Confucianism: A Very Short Introduction
Chapter 1
Confucius (pp.1-3)
Lived in the 6th century during the warring states period
Confucius went around looking for an authority position to different feudal states but was
rejected
the Analects (p.3)
A book of Confucius teachings
20 books
Named after Confucius’ death
Collection of oral sayings
Confucianism became state orthodoxy in 2nd century BCE during Han dynasty, lasting till early
20th century (p.6)
Confucian influence in Korea, Japan and Vietnam (not the details, but just the fact it was
influential in those East Asian countries, in addition to China)
visions of Confucius: learning from the past (p.10)
Social harmony and sage rulership would prevail
Looked to the past like the Zhou dynasty
Oral traditions was his source to look to the past and myths
Confucius regarding himself as a transmitter (not a creator) of cultural ideals and norms
(pp.11-12)
the organic interconnected between heaven, earth and human realms (p.13)
Two realms: The heaven and earth and the human realm
The human realm (the natural realm) order must be actively created and nurtured
The heaven and earth realm: harmony and perfect balance
They interact through rituals to stay connected to one another
no creator deity in Confucianism, tian (p.13)
Cosmos operates on its own
Tian: sky god or defined ancestor of the Zhou people. Means heaven
Dao or Way in Confucianism as sociopolitical order (p.14)
Not like daoist who believed dao is the mother of all things. Confucius saw it as a way to
put life in order
Two central concerns of Confucianism: what makes for a good man or person and what makes
for good government (p.15)
Government shows harmonious human actions
Chapter 2
five relationships (p.16)
Father-son
Ruler-subject

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Husband-wife
Older brother-younger brother
friend-friend
self-cultivation (p.16)
Each and every human being is urged to engage in a process of moral refinement as
each and every human being has the capability to exercise a beneficial moral force over
others
junzi as a person of moral nobility and xiaoren as a morally small person (p.18)
Means ruler’s son
Born in the elite
Matter of bloodline
In confucius it mean someone morally superior not born into
Xiaoren is a person of small man of morals
learning is central to self-cultivation and learning should be open to all (p.19);
centrality of learning in Confucius’ teaching (p.20-22)
Is about learning about the past, ancients, and rituals
Moral learning
ren as true goodness (p.22)
Comes from treating of others
ren has to be cultivated through ritual practices in relation to other people, instead of in isolation
(p.22)
what is included in the virtue of true goodness (p.23-25)
To love others
Subdue the self and return to ritual propriety
To be respectful, diligent, and kind
To have courage
Free from worry
Resolute and firm
li as ritual practice or the virtue of ritual propriety (p.25)
Rites ceremonies, prescriptions, prescription for proper behavior, rules of etiquette, and
customs
ritual “humanizes” or “civilizes” a person (p.26)
Makes social harmony possible

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ritual promotes the actualization of the normative five relationships which is believed to be the
foundation of any good sociopolitical order (p.26)
centrality of family in Confucianism (pp.29- 30)
Sets a path of virtue
Helps build a locus of norms and relationships
Moral cultivation begins with family
filial piety (p.30)
Respect to parent authority
family as central to sustaining a sociopolitical order (pp.31-32).
Family conditions children
Children learn the world has a natural hierarchy
Chapter 4
Mencius & Xunzi as prominent Confucians after Confucius in the classical period (p.49)
the agreement between Mencius and Xunzi (p.50)
That man can become a sage
That moral goodness results from self cultivation
Learning is a part of the self cultivation process
Vanguard elite is essential in promoting morality among the people
Good governance depends on the virtue of the ruler
Mencius’ view on human nature (p.51)
Man is born with nature that naturally tends towards goodness
the example of a child about to fall into a well (p.51)
This example shows mencius definition of human nature and how we are inclined toward
goodness
The mind and heart is the shoot of true goodness
four shoots (or sprouts) (pp.51-52)
Mind and heart of compassion is the shoot of true goodness
The mind and heart that is ashamed of evil one oneself and hates in others is the shoot
of righteousness
The mind and heart of humility is the shoot of ritual propriety
The mind and heart of right and wrong is the shoot for wisdom
No shoots you’re not human
four cardinal virtues: true goodness, righteousness, ritual propriety and wisdom (p.52)
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