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Midterm

01:840:211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ishvara, Caliphate, Androcentrism


Department
Religion
Course Code
01:840:211
Professor
Valentine
Study Guide
Midterm

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Religions of the Eastern World
Midterm Exam Study Guide
Jainism
Explain the soteriology of Jainism. Be sure to define and include the following terms in your explanation:
jiva, karma, ahimsa, and ishatpragbhara.
Jiva is the true self eternal consciousness, Jiva is finite and infinitely numerous. Karma is a sticky substance that
causes jiva to be enmeshed in matter, ahimsa means non violence not to harm other living things.,
ishatpragbhara is where all liberated souls reside.
Explain the distinction between the Digambaras and the Shvetambaras with regards to clothing and how
this relates to their understanding of Mahavira's time as a wandering ascetic. Explain the two different
ways they understand the nature of Mahavira after his enlightenment.
The digambaras believe that he was naked by choice and the Shvetambaras believe that he wore cloths for
thirteen months. Digambaras also believe that he never married and the Shvetambaras believe that Mahavira
married a princess and fathered a daughter. Digambaras believe that mahavira escaped the human biological and
psychological needs and weaknesses. Teaching would become clear in his presence. Shvetambara Mahavira
continued to eat sparingly, taught lessons on nonviolence for all living things for 30 years. Both sects believe
that Mahaviras holiness or charisma attracted followers and Mahavira is in a state beyond life and death.
Explain the distinction between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras with regards to their differing
positions regarding the place of women within their religious institutions. Be sure to include a discussion
of the tirtankaras, the mothers of the tirtankaras, and nuns. Dicombarass woen can not achieve moksha in
women form so they should hope to be reincarnated in human form svetambaras say its possible from female
form but it is still more difficult though. Digambaras mahabeera intentially nude and women cant do that
Syetambaras nudity was unintentional so it just happens not that important. One tintankara was a women more
swetemabaras. Monks superior to the nuns. The best thing a women could do is give birth to a man.
Describe two special types of ascetic behaviors performed by Jain monks and explain the rationale
behind those actions. Be sure to explain the role of ahimsa and karma. Reducing the amount of harmful
actions during ones life. Wears away karma thorugh unselfish acts wears away jiva by taking on acesteic
Buddhism
Explain the Eightfold Noble Path by grouping the practices into three distinct categories.
Wisdom (prajnā)̃
(1) Right Understanding – The View
(2) Right Thought – Purity of Thought
Morality or Conduct (śila)
(3) Right Speech
(4) Right Action
(5) Right Livelihood
Practice
(6) Right Effort – Regarding Higher Mental States
(7) Right Mindfulness – Aware of mental states
(8) Right Concentration – Mental Calmness & Penetrating Insight
śamatha (tranquility) & Vipaśanā (insight)
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