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01:920:108 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - White People, Black People, Semang


Department
Sociology
Course Code
01:920:108
Professor
ZAINIDDINOV
Study Guide
Final

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01:920:108

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Information-Syllabus
Sakai forum--> 2 questions for class discussion (due before discussion presentation)
Summarize article--> then explain how it is related to personal experiences
Articles are about 4-5 pages
15-20 minutes for presentation
Evidence in article to support/reject arguments in article
Presentation--> worth 10% of your grade
5 Documentaries in class--> after each documentary, then there is a film write up due--> relate to other documentaries (1/2 page to 1 page)--> worth 15% of your grade.
1 midterm, 1 final--> 55% of grade (they include material from lecture, documentaries, presentations, videos, discussions) --> exams are not cumulative
5% of participation (attendance each class)
Related to biology-> phenotypes (physical appearance) and genotypes (genes)
i.
Relationship between race and ethnicity (are they considered the same or different?)
ii.
2 uncertainties about race:
1.
Both terms are used differently in conversations and sometimes used interchangeably (because both have to do with ancestral regions and backgrounds--> somehow
related to culture)
i.
Race has little to do w/behavior, values
ii.
Race and ethnicity are equal and linked in American dictionary--> physical traits, language, history and culture are used to describe race and ethnicity)--> links culture
and physical traits.
iii.
U.S. Census Bureau--> questions related to race and ethnicity are done once every 10 years (Spanish/Hispanic/Latino are not considered a race in the census-->
considered an ethnic category)
iv.
The races defined in the Census--> 1) American Indian or Alaska Native, 2) Asian, 3) Black or African American, 4) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 5) White
v.
In 2010--> they added to the Census, the other race category (after facing pressure from the public)
vi.
Relationship between race and ethnicity
2.
Skin color= pigment (more sunlight--> more melanin)--> many variations of skin color
1)
Phenotypes: physical traits (skin color, hair, eye color)
i.
African American (African ancestry: 73. 2%, European ancestry: 24%, Native American: 0.8%)
1)
Genotypes: genetic differences (genetically inherited traits)
ii.
There is as much variation in racial groups as within each ethnic group--> many variations within a racial/ethnic group
iii.
Race/ethnicity should be on a continuum
iv.
How race is related to biology
3.
Weber looked at capitalism in culture and religion
1)
Weber didn't put race and ethnicity as the same
2)
Max Weber (1864-1920)--> wrote "Economy & Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology" (1921)
i.
Race: common inherited and inheritable traits derived from common descent (physical and biological)--> objective (told by people)
ii.
Ethnicity: a subjective belief in shared descent (subjective--> belief/perception [perceived] of similarities in culture)
iii.
Essentialism: understands individual's racial identity depends on fundamental and innate characteristics that are deep-seated, inherited and unchangeable (these
things make up the essence of the person--> these things aren't changeable)
iv.
Sociological definitions
4.
Began seeing race and ethnicity as subjective (both were perceived notions)
a.
Ethnicity: based on perceived cultural similarities (belief in share descent)
b.
Race: based on perceived innate physical and similarities (belief in share common descent)
c.
Contemporary sociologists
5.
Characteristic of ethnic groups include--> shared history, religion and culture, language, kin or ancestry, and sense of shared destiny (sometimes shared homeland is
included, especially for immigrants).
i.
Most groups share similarities in at least 1 or more of these characteristics--> they differ in degree in which each characteristic is important
ii.
Comes from Greek word ethos (nation)--> refers to distinct cultural norms and values of a social group (relates to regional)
a.
Ethnicity
6.
Is broad, continental
a.
An externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification (race created by those with power to ensure they retain power in society).
b.
No true biological races exist, human groups must be placed on a continuum
c.
Race is socially constructed, as well as ethnicity
d.
Race usually refers to physical characteristics granted importance by society.
e.
Race
7.
Depend on time and place (ex: Soviet Union--> didn't ask about race, only nationality), ethnic and racial categories vary widely across countries.
a.
Taxonomies
8.
Racial differences used for conquest, exploitation, and enslavement.
i.
Racial categories are regulated.
ii.
Racial categories are imposed by others
iii.
Race has historically mattered more in the U.S. because it was linked to citizenship and thus benefits as well--> (ex: during the Antebellum period--> white people were
not enslaved)--> race (skin color) dictated enslavement, resources provided.
iv.
Racial differentials in key socioeconomic outcomes are wider today than comparable ethnic group gaps.
v.
Race--> European explorers promoted idea of innate, racial hierarchies.
a.
Idea of hierarchies not used with ethnicity
i.
Ethnic categories are self-or group designated and ethnic terms are free from regulation.
ii.
Ethnicity
b.
Recent research--> because of intergroup marriage, for many whites living in the U.S., ethnicity has become a choice.
i.
For many whites, ethnicity is largely opted out of altogether.
ii.
Ethnic Options
c.
Terms
9.
Basic Concepts
Lecture: Day 1
Wednesday, January 17, 2018
1:30 PM
Minority Groups in American Society Page 1
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For many whites, ethnicity is largely opted out of altogether.
ii.
For non-whites, opting out of ethnicity is not a choice.
iii.
Whites can use ethnicity when it is beneficial for them--> ex: with holidays.
iv.
Group of people in a society who, because of their distinct physical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in situations of inequality compared with the dominant
group within that society (ex: Apartheid in South Africa, Caste system in India)
i.
Ex: discrimination, genocide
a)
Subordinate group (what minority groups are considered to be?)--> because jobs and resources are limited to them (disadvantage is not one sided)
b)
Dominant group--> holds power and resources and uses exploitation to retain power.
c)
Middlemen minority--> hold professions like small businesses (ex: Jews used to hold this position--> they were business people--> middlemen minority are
used as scapegoats)
d)
Inequality (distribution of resources and power of a group)
1)
Ethnic minority
a)
Racial minority
b)
Other (sex, physical disabilities, age, etc.), past behavior: criminal record, mental illness.
c)
Visibility (can be physical or cultural)
2)
Self-conscious social units (minority groups are aware of this)
a)
Awareness
3)
Group membership is determined at birth (can be voluntary or involuntarily)--> at birth dictates what minority group you will fall into
a)
Ascription
4)
Close friendships, dating partnerships, marriages
a)
Miscegenation (interracial marriage was declared legal in U.S. in 1967)
b)
Intimate relationships
5)
Characteristics--> inequality, visibility, awareness, ascription, intimate relationships
ii.
Minority Groups
d.
Minority Groups in American Society Page 2
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