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01:920:222 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Uniform Crime Reports, High Crime, Rapping


Department
Sociology
Course Code
01:920:222
Professor
Covington
Study Guide
Midterm

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01:920:222
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Criminology Overview
White-collar/political crimes
Problems with measuring
What causes crime?
Sociological theories
Social structure/process theories
Placement in social structure (class) motivates crime
Lower class are most likely (no money, culture)
Blacks vs. rest of population (special subcultures)
Whites have high crime rates
Race and violence
Blacks are more likely to be lower class
Individuals breaking away from society
Kids are raised to conform to society
Socialized by peer subculture (drugs, gangs)
Process can occur in ALL classes
Critical theories (critical of structure/process)
Do not know what crime is
Define certain behaviors as crimes
Consensual crimes (illegal drug use out of free will)
Both parties consent to the crime - it’s residual
Transactional = consensual
Why is the state involved? Legislating morality?
Social conflict theory - power control - Karl Marx
Find behaviors of the poor as crimes
Crack vs. cocaine - double standard
The wealthy succeed in control through laws
Males vs. females - males are much more likely
Males - assault/beating/murder by strangers/acquaintances
Females - by intimates (husbands, boyfriends)
Protecting themselves
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Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
3 Measuring Methods:
1. Uniform Crime Reports
2. SRD
3. NIBRS
UCR = official data/arrest data
Counts of arrest around the country
> 18,000 police depts send data on arrests and complaints to FBI
FBI publishes annually
Most crimes are reported by victims, very few discovered by police
Unfortunately, victims report only about 40% of serious crimes
Even if victim reports crime, police may not count it
Inaccurate due to lack of victim reports
May not believe victim, may not believe behavior is an actual crime
FBI Reporting
1. FBI reports out raw data (e.g. 10.3 million crimes reported in 2011)
2. FBI reports out percent changes over time (e.g. FBI records a 15% increase in
robberies from 2010-2011, 2010: 10,000 2011: 10,500)
3. FBI reports out crime rates per 100,000
Crime Rate = Number of crimes/Total US population * 100,000
30,000 murders/300,000,000 people * 100,000 = 10 murders per 100,000 people
Population growth is continuous
Populations and different sizes (cities, Blacks vs. Whites)
Part I (Index) Crimes
Violent Crimes
Murder & non-negligent manslaughter
Forcible rape
Aggravated assault
Robbery
Property Crimes
Burglary
Larceny/Theft
Motor vehicle theft
Arson
UCR also counts Hate Crimes since 1992
Hate crimes = crime motivated by bias against target
Can be violent or property crime
Meant to cause fear and intimidation in target group
Only a few depts report hate crimes (2006: 2105 depts reported)
Blacks - most hate crimes
Muslims
Part II Crimes
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