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01:920:222 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Uniform Crime Reports, Truancy, Treason


Department
Sociology
Course Code
01:920:222
Professor
Covington
Study Guide
Midterm

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01:920:222

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1/22: Measuring Criminal Behavior
Transactional crimes - crimes where no one sees themself as the victim
Buying and selling sex or drugs
People who are morally opposed to a certain thing have the power to lobby
against it
Females that are involved in violence, it is considered intimate violence -- they kill
their boyfriend or husband
There are three ways to measure crime
Uniform crime reports
Official data or arrest data
Most crimes are reported by victims; very few are discovered by
police
But police may not always count it !!
Police only record ⅔ of 911 calls
> 18000 police depts send this to fbi and fbi publishes it annually
Victims end up only reporting 40% of serious crimes -- a big
problem !!
A lot of problems with this measurement of crime
Self report data
National crime victimization survey
Draws a representative example of households throughout the
country and asks if they’ve been a victim of a crime
Asks if they reported it
How does the FBI report out all crime data?
FBI reports raw data and percent changes over time
FBI records 15% increase in robberies from 2010 to 2011
Crime rates are reported per 100,000 people and it’s always a percentage bc
population can change and the number of crimes in one city has no value for a
person living in a different city/state
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Lecture 2: 1/24
Systemic violence is market related violence
Some say the US is on the verge of another crime wave. Why?
UCR says
Number of violent crimes increased by 3.9%
Violent crime rate / 100,000 increased 3.1%
11% increase in murders alone
How have some criminologists explained these recent increases?
The ferguson effect
Police killings of unarmed civilians in Ferguson, MO, and other places
causes police to retreat and police less bc:
Fear anti police violence
Pubic criticism reduces police morale
Afraid of lawsuits, criminal charges, internal investigations
Fear public ridicule if recorded on cell phones and video goes viral
This type of thinking caused AG Sessions
To staunchly defend police and promote more police crackdowns
Call for rolling back Obama era emphasis on more federal oversight of
police
Federal oversight = court enforced controls over abusive police
departments
To reform police training
To restore trust between police departments and black and latino
citizens
Is there really a thing such as the ferguson effect?
If so, wherever there are protests of police killings, crime should increase
Problem is that there’s increase were localize to some cities, but why no
increase in other cities?
For example, no ferguson effect in NYC where crime did not
increase despite well publicized protest of police killing of unarmed
citizens
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Also, if increases are localized, why do we need a national law and
order campaign?
Focusing on a few localized examples ignores historically low nationwide crime
rates
Nationwide
1991: violent crime peaks at 758 / 100,000
2015: violent crimes rate = 373 / 100,000
Murder rate is also very low
1980: peak = 10.2 / 100,000
2015: rate = 4.9 / 100,000
You need more than 1 year of crime data to say crime is increasing, bc crime
rates fluctuate
For 2014 - 2015 increase due to chicago alone presumably bc of ferguson
effect; however, 2016-2017, crime decreased by 15% in chicago
What happened to the ferguson effect?
Conclusion: You shouldn’t come up with a bug explanation for crime rates based
on 1-2 years worth of data !!
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