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01:920:101 (48)
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COMPLETE Review for Exam 2

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Department
Sociology
Course
01:920:101
Professor
Professor Wilhelms
Semester
Summer

Description
Review Sheet Mid-Term II Power Domhoff – role of elite private clubs in consolidating cultural and social capital; assimilation of new members; role of private schools; - prepping for power: from infancy to young adulthood, members of upper class receive a distinctive education (private schools/boarding schools/ivy league) however if they go to a public school, they never see the inside of a public school because of their system of formal schooling - separation of education (including special classes and tutors) is evidence for the distinctiveness in mentality and lifestyle of the upper class (ex. going away to summer camps or travel tours to broaden their perspective and social skills) (provides them with networks around the world) - boarding schools and upper class educational systems played a major role in creating an upper class subculture on a national scale (modeled after British counterparts) Even a different terminology used (principal = headmaster, teachers=masters) - these schools were “total institutions”, isolating their members from the outside world and providing them with a set of routines and traditions that encompass most of their waking hours, which leads to feeling of separateness and superiority by surviving a rigorous course) - majority go into fields of business, finance, or corporate law - social clubs also played a role in differentiating upper class adults (country club, downtown club, yacht owners) - sporting activities are most basic for most specialized clubs (yachting and saling clubs, lawn tennis or squash) - fees and expenses to gain membership isn’t a problem (barrier is mostly nomination from active members, letters of recommendations, and interviews) - some like clubs, some feel it's a social necessity - people of upper class have overlapping memberships (connection between upper class and corporate community) (for powerful people to relax, make new friends and enjoy themselves/social bonding/beliefs, problems and values of the industrial organization are discussed) - upper class women went to separate private schools, founded their own social clubs and took charge of welfare and cultural institutions - upper class women may have less inequality because they’re more likely to have careers, serve on corporate boards - debutante season – series of parties, teas, and dances that culminates in one or more grand balls (announces the arrival of young women of the upper class into adult society with the utmost of formality and elegance) (very expensive and a ritual) (proceeds of the party usually given to a charity) - upperclass women were powerful and played traditional roles at home - community volunteer is a central pre occupation of upper class women (has significant value as a family tradition and obligation to the community) “if you’re privileged, you have a certain responsibility” The Junior League (meant for women) improves existing situations. - volunteering is also viewed as protecting American way of life against socialism -women also place high value on family life (almost all wanted to take on traditional roles of the wife and mother) -due to pressures on corporations, upper class women expanded their roles to include corporate directorship -women have important class power in some institutional areas even though subordinate to male dominance so there is more solidarity between upper class men and women compared to rest of society - marriage is just as important in upper class as any level of American society (only difference is the site of the marriage and lavishness) upper class should marry upper class people but evidence shows that upper class marry middle class just as much (once in upper class, tend to stay there even if new members from other classes join) Bourdieu –Habitus, cultural capital, economic capital - habitus: ways of thinking/acting; bodily habits, tastes: likes and dislikes - whole way of life/ lifestyle -Cultural capital: knowledge, skill, education, high expectations; any advantages a person has that gives them a higher status in society - forms of cultural capital: embodied (long lasting dispositions) ex. tastes, values, language - institutionalized state: educational credentials; membership of clubs - each class has its own habitus: upper middle class- more capital than working class - each individual’s habitus is the habitus of their class - eeonomic capital: resources ex. wealth, land, money - cultural capital: educational credentials, verbal skills, types of knowledge that can be turned into economic capital - social capital: networks of contacts and acquaintances that can be used to advance one’s position Scanlan et al –scarcity fallacy; food distribution vs food production; recommendations; - conventional reason: natural disasters, not enough food - food production grew much faster than population - Malthus’ theory: population grows geometrically and food arithmetically - “supermarket revolution” - a term used by the World Bank to describe the growing reliance of global citizens on large-scale agricultural industries and commodity chains to obtain their food; helps but also increases prices, making food less affordable - supermarket model created a steady growth of import and export of food but doesn't guarantee food for the needy and increased use of biofuel shifted agriculture away from food production and into gas example - food is more plentiful today than ever before (even grew faster than the fastest growing population) - problem is access to food and the distribution of it - global supermarket revolution is counter productive on the local level because of increased prices, making food more unavailable for people in need - scarcity is a myth; more on the problem of the distribution inequality - 96% of hungry people are in developing countries - poverty is inseparable from hunger (they're linked) - most LIFDC are in Africa - women disproportionally likely to suffer hunger and are 80% of agriculture labor - inequality = poverty, gender, ethnicity, conflict and corruption all contribute to hunger - food aid isn’t given to the needy; to organization with stable operations and favored ethnicities - solutions: focus on democratic governance and protection of human rights, overcoming inefficiencies and corruption for the food aid distribution, sustaining local agriculture production, - solutions: recognition of food as a international human right, promoting sustainable agriculture locally so farmers can compete in their own markets Gender: Barbara Risman –doing gender - gender stratification: social systems in which socioeconomic resources and political power are distributed on the basis of one’s sex and gender - Four distinct theoretical traditions : - gendered selves: whether sex differences are developed biologically or socially in origin - biosociological explanation: nurtured through natural selection; criticized for its ethnocentrism and selective use of biological species as evidence - sex-role theory: early childhood socialization is an influential determinant of later behavior; how societies create feminine women and masculine men. - reinforcement theory suggest that girls develop nurturant personalities because they are given praise and attention for their interest in dolls and babies and boys develop competitive selves because they are positively reinforced for winning - women relate to their children different; women are nurturant and men are independent; women’s role is universal - materal thinking: women develop psychological frameworks that value peace and justice through nurturing - gender is formed through socialization (beliefs and values acquired through socialization with whatever resource is available and maintain their identities) Weakness: behavioral continuity throughout the life course (women can be aggressive) - structure vs. personality: how social structure created gendered behavior as opposed to biology or individual learning - sex differences are deceptive distinctions; act differently because of their positions: men and women in same structural slots are expected to behave the same - men can be “mothers” if they don't have women to do it (gender can disappear if roles were converged) - however, if couples have same high status corporate jobs, mother takes on family responsibilities (sex category still remains a powerful indicator in explaining behavior in families) - Doing gender: emphasizes contextual issues and how doing gender re- creates inequality during interaction (when person is labeled a sex category, they’re morally accountable for behaving as persons in that category do) - gender is not something we are, its something we do - interactional contexts take priority over individual traits and personalities - other’s expectations make us do gender to be self fulfilling prophecies - Gender as social structure: integrates previous ones - Practical consciousness: much of social life is so routine that actors will not articulate, or even consider, why they act. Structure makes action possible as well as constrains it. - gender is a structural property of society (is deeply embedded in society): individuals can’t develop as gendered selves, men and women face different expectations, even with the same structural positions and at the institutional level because women and men will rarely get the same positions. - interactional pressures and institutional design create gender and inequality -even if individuals choose to be different, there is still pressure from gendered institutions and interactional contexts - expectations constrain women to be different (ex. woman will be looked down on if she doesn't keep home clean) -individuals act in a structurally patterned routine Sex vs gender -gender = social sex = biological - gender: an institutionalized system of social practices for constituting people as two significantly different categories of people - gender system: “not that it never changes but that is sustains itself by continually redefining who men and women are” Sangyoub Park – he-cession; increasing gender equality - revolution in gender: steadily increasing number of women in the paid labor force - women are outpacing men in college graduation and labor force participation - maybe because of recession has impacted male dominant industries like finance, real estate and etc. (called a he-cession or mancession) 80% of jobs lost were men - but this trend of women might stay because of the shift in educational attainment which leads to jobs (degree gap is bigger in minorities like black women to men ratio is 2:1) - women are taking over detective, lawyer, and physician jobs. Not yet but the pace is very steep - professional schools are taking in more women than men - however women are more likely to exit the labor market when they have children and as the pay gap is narrow, its because of male’s decrease in earnings rather than women’s rise in pay Scheper-Hughes –Indifference of Alto mothers; basic facts - child mortality has disappeared from the streets and retreated to the back streets and muddy hills of Brazil, children came and went - Alto do Cruzeiro, one of three towns surrounding the large market town of Bom Jesus has moved to the shadow of the now tarnished economic miracle of Brazil. ( only miracle for the people of Alto do Curzeiro is staying alive) - approximately one million children in Brazil under the age of 5 die a year (life expectancy is 40 years) - children born in these kinds of areas are born without the tradition protection of breast feeding, stable marriages and multiple care takers. (single parenting is a norm)\ - leaves babies at home alone so that mothers and children not going to school can go to work because they cant take babies to where they work - replaced by old childhood killers (tetanus, infectious diseases etc) to new killers, malnutrition and diarrhea caused dehydration and kills children at an earlier age now - economic expansion and development at the price of general social welfare and the price of children survival - passive infanticide – moral selective neglect “survivors were nurtured and the doomed infants were left to die ex. Lourdes neglected Zezinho after she had a new born and other women said to leave him alone because he had no chance to survive. After Zezinho seemed well enough after force feeding, Lourdes seemed more interested in Zezinho now he looked more human. However, after years when Zezinho was grown up, they would retell the storyof his rescue and how his mother left him for dead but he still said his mother was the best friend he ever had in life - counting dead infants in Northe
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