Euro test #2 Review
The Revolution: power point and online homework answers
Socialism: Common ownership; resources of the world being owned in common by
the entire population. Marxism: more focused on economics, the philosophical
concept of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as
historical materialism. Means of production, distribution, and exchange should be
owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and
industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Communism: A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and
leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works
and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Revolutionary ideas sweep through Europe in the aftermath of the war
Manifesto of the Communist Party:
-Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
1) “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a
world to win.”
2) “Proletarians of all countries, unite!”
Proletarians are the working class.
Bourgeoisie are the people who control the means of production and make up the
Marxism: Stages of historical development
1. Primitive-communal stage
2. System of Slavery
3. Feudalism (inherited wealth)
4. Capitalism (ownership of private property)
5. Socialism (transitional stage)
6. Communism (era of equality and mutual harmony in which the individual
will become free and no longer be defined by economical status.
The relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is both unequal and
exploitative in that the dominant class takes unfair advantage of the subordinate
According to Marxist thinking, the State developed as a tool for minority of
people to oppress other people. We are all naturally relatively equal, and that
significant inequality among people can only exist through the use of State force.
According to Marx: -Capitalism creates huge factories. Workers become concentrated and begin to
organize for legal reforms (higher wages/better working conditions). This effort
-Fierce competition between capitalists leads to new technologies, which leads to
lower costs. In the competition, some capitalists go bankrupt and have to become
workers, and many workers lose their jobs as new technology replaces them.
-Fewer people can afford the products of capitalists, so fewer companies survive.
-Class struggle reaches a climax; conditions now ripe for revolution. The
Proletariat, having nothing to lose but their chains, rise up.
Vision of the Revolution:
Revolution will eliminate private property. No longer will man have the
means of exploiting another man.
Bourgeoisie will fight, so revolution will be violent.
A dictatorship of the proletariat will follow to weed out remaining capitalist
In the end, a classless society with no more oppression or internal
People will be free to choose how they labor, and can be creatively
productive. They will be able to live to their fullest potential.
The difference between “Communism” and the Communist Party.
The countries that were called “communist” were countries where the
dominant political part was the Communist party. Communist parties are
generally political parties who have working towards achieving
“communism” as part of their party platform.
The soviet union was always moving towards communism.
The goal of Communists was to ultimately abolish the State altogether.
Basic communist ideology holds that the purpose of “the State” is to enforce
social and economic disparity.
Socialism came to prominence as a moralistic movement by Christians who
were opposed to the oppressive working conditions of the Industrial
Revolution, and opposed the problems it was creating in society by the
breakup of fundamental values of family, community, and small businesses.
The term “Socialism” was created by Robert Owen to describe his view of a
cooperative new society.
Socialists wanted to protect the interests of society against the actions
of extremely powerful individuals who, through economic means,
controlled the world and were beholden to no one.
1. Defeat in Japanese war: first time Europe was defeated by Asia 2. Political frustration: monarchy refuses to mordernize and adapt with
the times, government remains out of touch, and protestors killed by
Tsar’s army known as Bloody Sunday
3. Social injustice: Economic crisis, workers strikes and unions formed.
Tsar reacts with “October Manifesto”
Increases civil freedoms
Forms limited constitutional government
Government regains control
Reforms rejected by extremists and workers
Period of “Normalcy” begins
Russia enters “Silver Age”: period of art and culture
On the Eve of WWI
Despite rapid industrialization, Russia still not at levels of the West
Average income slightly increased
Benefits of economic boom finally trickling down
Increased access to education
Increased resentment toward rich
WWI impact on Russia
6-8 million killed
Tsar’s regime significantly damaged
Revolution on the Doorstep
Tsar directly linked himself with war thinking victory would be quick
Tsar became out of touch
Society became increasingly disoriented
Increasing anger over social injustices
Tsar Abdicates – March 1917
Nicholas abdicates throne in favor of his brother, who refuses
Provisional Government established
Tsar was sent to Siberia under house arrest
Temporary solution – no public support
“Dual government” with soviets Made some social changes
Lack of unity within government
March October 1917
Lenin arrives from Germany in sealed, armored car
Bolsheviks appeal to people: “Peace, land & bread”.
Arrived in St Petersburg on exile from Germany
Leader of Bolsheviks
Political ideas based of Marx and Engels
Advocated for violent revolution
Vision of World Revolution
Emerges as sole leader after revolution
Mussolini: Italian politician who became prime minister of Italy and one of the key
figures in fascism.
Fascism: A political ideology that was anticommunist and antisocialist, militantly
nationalist, and in favor of economic security and law and order, if necessary
through dictorial rule.
March On Rome:
Fascists arrive in Rome in 1922 and threaten to take over the government.
Mussolini is granted the power to reform a government by Vittori Emanuele
III, king of Italy.
Why did fascism rise to power?
Social unrest caused by WWI brought about the threat of communism.
Industrialists and land owners supported fascism with the goal of
suppressing industrial and agricultural workers. The lower-class eventually
starts to support fascism.
Mussolini consolidated his regime in 1925. II Duce got rid of the non-fascists
in his cabinet and replaced them with party officials.
Fascist legislation radically altered the constitutional power.
Fascism and the Church
Mussolini understood that the church had a great influence on the country
and that he needed their support.
He had an advantage because the catholic leader was a leftist priest, Don
Luigi Sturzo. The Lateran Accords
In 1929 Mussolini and the Vatican signed the Lateran Accords, which was a
treaty, financial agreement, and a concordat.
o Concordat: An agreement or treaty, especially one between the
Vatican or the secular government.
The concordat allowed catholic religious instruction in private and public
The agreement ended the possibility of divorce in Italy until 1970.
The Third Way
Fascists believed that their movement represented an alternative to
liberalism and communism, therefore called “the third way”.
o Liberalism: A political orientation that favors social progess by reform
and by changing laws rather than by revolution.
Fascists believed in natural inequality and emphasis on heroism.
Italian colonization of Africa
By WWI Italy had participated in “scramble for Africa” by conquering Eritrea,
Somalia, and Libya.
Mussolini brutally conquered Ethiopia by using illegal gas and declared the
creation of the Italian Empire.
Albania: Mussolini invaded Albania in 1939 and annexed it to the Italia
o Annex: to add something
1938: radical laws
Under Hitler’s pressure, fascists passed radical laws and founded a radical
journal harsh on Jews. It banned Jews from teaching profession, inter-racial
marriage, and receiving an education.
Mobilizing the Masses
Paramount to achieve support for the government and its goals to give
people a sense of nationalism, identity and security.
o Paramount: supreme; more important than anything else
Women under fascism
Had to conform to all gender roles, but not all women were equal.
Upper-class women were glamor