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San Diego State University
European Studies
Emily Shuckman- Matthews

Euro test #2 Review The Revolution: power point and online homework answers Socialism: Common ownership; resources of the world being owned in common by the entire population. Marxism: more focused on economics, the philosophical concept of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as historical materialism. Means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Communism: A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. Revolutionary ideas sweep through Europe in the aftermath of the war Manifesto of the Communist Party: -Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 1) “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.” 2) “Proletarians of all countries, unite!” Proletarians are the working class. Bourgeoisie are the people who control the means of production and make up the dominant class. Marxism: Stages of historical development 1. Primitive-communal stage 2. System of Slavery 3. Feudalism (inherited wealth) 4. Capitalism (ownership of private property) 5. Socialism (transitional stage) 6. Communism (era of equality and mutual harmony in which the individual will become free and no longer be defined by economical status. The relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is both unequal and exploitative in that the dominant class takes unfair advantage of the subordinate class. According to Marxist thinking, the State developed as a tool for minority of people to oppress other people. We are all naturally relatively equal, and that significant inequality among people can only exist through the use of State force. According to Marx: -Capitalism creates huge factories. Workers become concentrated and begin to organize for legal reforms (higher wages/better working conditions). This effort fails. -Fierce competition between capitalists leads to new technologies, which leads to lower costs. In the competition, some capitalists go bankrupt and have to become workers, and many workers lose their jobs as new technology replaces them. -Fewer people can afford the products of capitalists, so fewer companies survive. -Class struggle reaches a climax; conditions now ripe for revolution. The Proletariat, having nothing to lose but their chains, rise up. Vision of the Revolution:  Revolution will eliminate private property. No longer will man have the means of exploiting another man.  Bourgeoisie will fight, so revolution will be violent.  A dictatorship of the proletariat will follow to weed out remaining capitalist elements.  In the end, a classless society with no more oppression or internal contradictions.  People will be free to choose how they labor, and can be creatively productive. They will be able to live to their fullest potential. The difference between “Communism” and the Communist Party.  The countries that were called “communist” were countries where the dominant political part was the Communist party. Communist parties are generally political parties who have working towards achieving “communism” as part of their party platform.  The soviet union was always moving towards communism.  The goal of Communists was to ultimately abolish the State altogether. Basic communist ideology holds that the purpose of “the State” is to enforce social and economic disparity. Socialism  Socialism came to prominence as a moralistic movement by Christians who were opposed to the oppressive working conditions of the Industrial Revolution, and opposed the problems it was creating in society by the breakup of fundamental values of family, community, and small businesses.  The term “Socialism” was created by Robert Owen to describe his view of a cooperative new society.  Socialists wanted to protect the interests of society against the actions of extremely powerful individuals who, through economic means, controlled the world and were beholden to no one. Russian Revolution Major Causes: 1. Defeat in Japanese war: first time Europe was defeated by Asia 2. Political frustration: monarchy refuses to mordernize and adapt with the times, government remains out of touch, and protestors killed by Tsar’s army known as Bloody Sunday 3. Social injustice: Economic crisis, workers strikes and unions formed. Tsar reacts with “October Manifesto”  Increases civil freedoms  Forms limited constitutional government Results:  Divides opposition  Government regains control  Reforms rejected by extremists and workers  Period of “Normalcy” begins  Russia enters “Silver Age”: period of art and culture  Rapid Industrialization On the Eve of WWI  Despite rapid industrialization, Russia still not at levels of the West  Average income slightly increased  Benefits of economic boom finally trickling down  Increased access to education  Increased resentment toward rich WWI impact on Russia  6-8 million killed  Economy destroyed  Tsar’s regime significantly damaged Revolution on the Doorstep  Tsar directly linked himself with war thinking victory would be quick  Tsar became out of touch  Society became increasingly disoriented  Crushed economy  Increasing anger over social injustices Tsar Abdicates – March 1917  Nicholas abdicates throne in favor of his brother, who refuses  Provisional Government established  Tsar was sent to Siberia under house arrest  Family murdered Provisional Government  Temporary solution – no public support  “Dual government” with soviets  Made some social changes  Lack of unity within government March October 1917  Revolution spreads  Lenin arrives from Germany in sealed, armored car  Bolsheviks appeal to people: “Peace, land & bread”. Vladimir Lenin  Arrived in St Petersburg on exile from Germany  Leader of Bolsheviks  Political ideas based of Marx and Engels  Advocated for violent revolution  Vision of World Revolution  Emerges as sole leader after revolution Italian Fascism Mussolini: Italian politician who became prime minister of Italy and one of the key figures in fascism. Fascism: A political ideology that was anticommunist and antisocialist, militantly nationalist, and in favor of economic security and law and order, if necessary through dictorial rule. March On Rome:  Fascists arrive in Rome in 1922 and threaten to take over the government. Mussolini is granted the power to reform a government by Vittori Emanuele III, king of Italy. Why did fascism rise to power?  Social unrest caused by WWI brought about the threat of communism.  Industrialists and land owners supported fascism with the goal of suppressing industrial and agricultural workers. The lower-class eventually starts to support fascism. Totalitarian State  Mussolini consolidated his regime in 1925. II Duce got rid of the non-fascists in his cabinet and replaced them with party officials.  Fascist legislation radically altered the constitutional power. Fascism and the Church  Mussolini understood that the church had a great influence on the country and that he needed their support.  He had an advantage because the catholic leader was a leftist priest, Don Luigi Sturzo. The Lateran Accords  In 1929 Mussolini and the Vatican signed the Lateran Accords, which was a treaty, financial agreement, and a concordat. o Concordat: An agreement or treaty, especially one between the Vatican or the secular government.  The concordat allowed catholic religious instruction in private and public schools.  The agreement ended the possibility of divorce in Italy until 1970. The Third Way  Fascists believed that their movement represented an alternative to liberalism and communism, therefore called “the third way”. o Liberalism: A political orientation that favors social progess by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution.  Fascists believed in natural inequality and emphasis on heroism. Italian colonization of Africa  By WWI Italy had participated in “scramble for Africa” by conquering Eritrea, Somalia, and Libya.  Mussolini brutally conquered Ethiopia by using illegal gas and declared the creation of the Italian Empire.  Albania: Mussolini invaded Albania in 1939 and annexed it to the Italia Empire. o Annex: to add something 1938: radical laws  Under Hitler’s pressure, fascists passed radical laws and founded a radical journal harsh on Jews. It banned Jews from teaching profession, inter-racial marriage, and receiving an education. Mobilizing the Masses  Paramount to achieve support for the government and its goals to give people a sense of nationalism, identity and security. o Paramount: supreme; more important than anything else Women under fascism  Had to conform to all gender roles, but not all women were equal.  Upper-class women were glamor
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