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Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
ENS 401A
Fabio Comana

ENS401A EXAM II REVIEW MODULE 5 - FOUNDATIONAL TRAINING ● Describe proper squatting (i.e. bend-and-lift) and lunging techniques ○ Squatting ■ Start position: neutral subtalar joint position ● Feet should be parallel or a slight eversion (8-10 degrees) ■ Hip Hinge ● Initiate movement by driving the hips backward first ■ Pelvic Tilt ● Immediately after hip hinge, correct the spine by initiating pelvic tilt prior to lowering ● Stabilize the spine and engage your core ■ Head position should be NEUTRAL ● Head up or head down position can increase spinal compression ○ Lunging ■ Step 1: ● Static half kneeling raises by cueing the eccentric hamstrings to stabilize the knee in the sagittal plane ■ Step 2: ● Step-load-hinge-torso angle cueing - don’t overstep ■ Step 3: ● Full lunge - keep COM displacement in mind ■ Step 4: ● Side-lunge - don’t overstep ● Cueing sequence: toe-heel-hinge-shift ■ Step 5: ● Add 3D movement with drivers (volume) ● Vary from double-leg start to: ○ Single leg → jumping → bounding → hopping ● Explain the mechanics at the shoulder involved in performing an arm abduction movement ○ Rotate arms overhead with palms facing inward and outward - notice the difference ■ Inward: less ROM ● WHY? Impingement of the deltoid tuberosity → compresses space under the clavicle (collar bone) ● Exercises (i.e. upright row, lateral raises) are potentially dangerous ○ Solution: externally rotate as you lift up or do not come up as high ■ Outward: more ROM ● WHY? With arms externally rotated, the deltoid tuberosity falls behind the clavicle ○ Move arms forward 30-degrees from frontal plane (out at sides) - notice the difference in weight of arms ■ Arms out to sides (3/9 o’clock position) forces deltoid Tuberosity to side up against arch = joint friction ● This position also pushes the elbows backwards, forcing the humeral (upper arm) head forward (Newton’s 3rd Law) → more stress in the shoulder ● This position may also increase arching in the low back - more stress ○ Frontal Plane ■ Must eventually externally rotate arms for full abduction ● WHY? If not, the greater tuberosity of the humerus is impinged ● Shoulder abduction with internal rotation can lead to bursitis and tendonitis ○ Scaption Plane ■ Arms are 30 degrees forward to the frontal plane ■ The greater tuberosity falls in line with the highest point of the of the coraco- acromial arch → experiencing least amount of resistance ● Explain the technique for shoulder packing ○ To flatten your shoulder blades (packed position), do NOT drive the chest forward (i.e. move the rib cage) ○ Aim rather to stiffen your core first (to prevent spine movement) ■ Fix the ribcage and move the shoulder blades along the ribcage ○ Why do we care about a packed scapula? ■ This is your starting / ending for all upper extremity push and pull movements ● Provides a solid platform to operate off ○ Shoulder Packing Exercise (Slide 53) ■ Engage lumbar stabilizers ■ Retract scapulae ■ Depress scapulae ■ Perform unloaded movement in all 3 planes (push/pull, mash and scrub) ● Maintain arm position below shoulder height (no scapular rotation / tilt / abduction) and avoid elbow extension (often = scapular protraction) ● Explain the role of anterior capsule stabilization (shoulder) during abduction + external rotation movements ○ ● Describe the stability-mobility relationship throughout the kinetic chain ○ Stable ■ Foot ■ Knee ■ Lumbar spine ■ Scapulo-thoracic region ○ Mobile ■ Ankle ■ Hips ■ Thoracic spine ■ Glenohumeral ● Describe the respective roles of the core and outer layer within the lumbo-pelvic hip complex (i.e. muscle function, hoop tension) ○ Core (Middle “local” Layer) ■ Functions reflexively (40-100 msec) to stabilize the spine in anticipation of, and during voluntary / involuntary loading without conscious muscle action ■ Produces Intra-abdominal Pressure (IAP) / hoop tension ● Similar to cinching belt around waist ● Increases stiffness to build traction between lumbar vertebra and reduce joint and disk compression ● Transverse Abdominis (TVA) pulls upon linea alba, drawing abdominal wall inward/upward ○ Compresses internal organs upwards against diaphragm and downward against pelvic floor ■ The diaphragm is attached to the 2nd / 3rd lumbar vertebra = upward pull to increase lumbar vertebra traction ■ Creates rigid cylinder (spinal stiffening) to stabilize spine against loading forces and for force transfer through LPHC (lumbo-pelvic-hip complex) ■ Can reduce joint and disk compression on lumbar discs up to 40% ○ Outermost Layer (Global) ■ Larger, more powerful muscles spanning many vertebrae ● Rectus abdominis and erector spinae ● External-internal obliques ● Iliopsoas and latissimus dorsi ● Discuss appropriate training strategies for the core (local) and outer unit (global) muscle groups ○ Core (Middle “local” Layer) ■ Role = stabilizers → possess higher concentrations of Type 1 Fibers ● i.e. spinal stability ■ Best trained with volume using unstable surfaces ○ Outermost Layer (Global) ■ Role = mobilizers → possess higher concentration of Type II fibers ● i.e. trunk mobility ■ Best trained for load / power using overload and stable surfaces ● Discuss the effects of low and high-frequency forces upon the body ○ Low-frequency Forces ■ Absorbed within soft-tissue structures → elastic tissue ○ High-frequency Forces ■ Absorbed within hard-tissue structures → bone, spine ● Describe basic differences between minimalist-style vs. traditional heel-strike style of running ○ Minimalist-Style ■ Increased stride frequency needed to offset shorter strides ■ Less impact forces into skeleton and joints ■ Requires less ankle mobility ■ More knee stability (internal knee rotation) ■ Greater posterior muscle action to accept landing forces ■ Decreased support phase on ground contact time (time transition from heel-to- toe off ○ Traditional Heel-Strike Style ■ Increased stride length = heel strike ■ Greater impact forces into skeleton joints ■ Requires greater ankle mobility ● Dorsi- & plantar-flexion ● Supination & pronation ■ Less knee stability ■ Greater anterior muscle action to control foot drop ■ Increased support phase or ground contact time (time transition from heel-to-toe off) MODULE 6 - METABOLIC TRAINING ● Describe the demonstrated benefits (i.e. via research) of interval-based training (e.g. true HIIT) ○ Definition of (true) HIIT Training: ■ Maximal or near maximal performance → want movement quality by improving performance (bigger, stronger, faster) ■ The work interval is shorter than the recovery interval ○ Confirmed Research Benefits ■ Time-efficiency → shorter workouts ● Up to 90% less training volume (amount of work performed) ● Up to 67% lower training time ■ Improved aerobic and anaerobic performance ■ Improved health → blood glucose control ● Distinguish the key differences between, and benefit of the different types of interval-based training programs discussed in class ○ Variable-Intensity Interval Training ■ High-intensity (performance) intervals → more HIIT intervals = calories + EPOC ■ Overall improved technique = reduced injury potential ■ Positive experiences ○ Work-Recovery Hybrids ■ Variable Recovery Training (VRT) ● Varying the the recovery interval between set work intervals ● Example: 60 sec work → 60 sec recovery → 60 sec work → 180 sec recovery → 60 sec work → etc. ■ Variable Interval Training (VIT) ● Varying the work interval between set recovery intervals ● Example: 60 sec work → 60 sec recovery → 60 sec work → 60 sec recovery → 30 sec work → 60 sec recovery → 30 sec work → etc. ○ Variable Modality Training (VMT) ■ Traditional ● 5-10 min warm up ● 46 min condition phase of cardio and/or resistance ● 5-10 min cool down ■ Integrated ● Series of mini / micro-bouts ● Each can be uniquely different or repeat at fixed or odd intervals of 5-10 minutes MODULE 7 / 8 - FUNCTIONAL TRAINING ● Distinguish between load and volume in training and the techniques for calculating training volume ○ Load: amount of resistance or external load applied to muscles; intensity of work (how hard we’re working) ■ Example: strength and hypertrophy ○ Volume: total amount of work performed (stabilization, endurance) ■ Example: Sets x # Reps x TUT (time-under-tension optional) ■ Should be dictated by training experience and training goals ● Volume progression (e.g. 3 sets x 12 reps = 4 sets x 10 reps) → 36 to 40 ● Describe the different training formats discussed in this module for optimizing hypertrophy and strength ○ Hypertrophy ■ Fiber Emphasis = Type IIA ■ Sets = 3-6 (4 is ideal) ■ Reps = 6-12 to POF point of failure ■ Tempo = 4:1:2 = eccentric : isometric (transition) : concentric ■ Weeks = 2-6 weeks ■ Intensity = 67/70% - 85/90% 1RM ■ Volume = Moderate ■ Recovery Rest Interval ● Volume & Metabolic Stress = 60-120 seconds (traditional) ● New strategies = 60-90 seconds (volume) / ≤60 seconds (metabolic stress) ○ Strength
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