ENS 438 Final: Final Exam Study Guide

15 Pages
Unlock Document

Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
ENS 438

ENS438 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE ● TINLEY’S NOTES: ○ The malingering injured athlete can lead to burnout in the attending attending clinician / therapist ○ Personality characteristics can and do contribute to injury levels ○ Compression is NOT indicated in the immediate treatment of concussion ● What does Nixon have to say about being disabled in society? ○ “Disability” has a different definition in sport than in larger society ■ Can refer to persons with permanent disabilities or a category in athletic competition ■ Paradox - “disabled” in society, but abled-bodied in the world of sports ○ Impairment: a bio-medical condition, an organic or functional disorder that underlies a disability or handicap ■ May hinder the effective ability to function in the same role as unimpaired ■ Impairments are the basis for disabilities ■ The extent to which the impaired is disabled is based on the task, role, or activity ● Therefore, disability is situational ○ Being handicapped is situational ○ The relationship of one’s personal impairment and disability to their resources and environment affects the performance ○ Handicaps are like disabilities in that they are the result of how people construct environments, relationships, or roles and NOT the inevitable result of impairments ● Review key ideas on Ethics and Sports Injury ○ Moral reasoning must be: ■ Impartial ■ Consistent ■ Steeped and supported in example ■ Considering of contexts, motives, and effects ■ Moral pluralism plus ethical theory and discourse leads to reason ○ Ethical Maxims: what should guide us in our moral decisions in how sports are played ■ The Golden Rule ● How would you like to be treated? ■ The Utilitarian Principle ● Greatest good for the greatest number (not as easy as it seems) ■ Kant’s Categorical Imperative ● Action taken that could or should be law or rule of behavior (nothing is contextual) ● “Act only according to that maxim… which should become universal law” (10 Commandments?) ■ The Professional Ethic ● Actions taken that (lead to injury) would be considered proper or improper by a disinterested panel of professional colleagues ■ The TV test ● Would i feel comfortable explaining a national audience about the action? ○ Allows self-deception, but is founded in “positive character building” ● What are some of the media influences on sports injury, illness, pain and rehabilitation? ○ The portrayed sports and athletes become more well known ○ Illustrates pain and drama ○ Effects our “stake in content” ○ Attract sponsors / increased viewership ○ Relates to our own humanness ■ Coverage privileges men over women ■ Heterosexuality is assumed, homosexuality is mostly erased and ignored ■ Coverage reproduces dominant ideas about manhood, but may challenge ideas about femininity ● Review our lecture on PED use in sport and its influence on sports injury and illness. ○ Substance abuse constitutes a form of deviant over-conformity to the Sport Ethic ○ Such substances will be used as long as athletes believe they enhance performance and enable athletes to remain in the game they love ○ Drug Use & Deviant Overconformity (Jay Coakley) ■ Banned substance use remains high in sport ■ Occurs in context of young athletes looking to become “elite” (shifting definition) ■ PED use does not exist in a vacuum ■ Motives vary from skill development to body image to competitive readiness to moral challenge ■ Rarely used in consideration of general health and well being ■ Social influences include coaches, media, sponsors, family, peers, and teammates ■ PED use has an understudied relationship with sports injury rate → why? ● Four “prolympic” expectations of elite athlete associate with normative PED use and high injury rates ○ Dedication to the game ○ Strives for distinction ○ Accepts risks and plays through the pain ○ Will overcome all obstacles in pursuit of excellence and other possibilities ○ Why is substance use in sport so prevalent today? ■ The visibility and resources associated with sports have fueled massive research and development efforts, and increased the availability of substances ■ People are fascinated with technology and want to use it to push human limits ■ The modern rationalization of the body influences how people see the mind-body relationship ■ There’s a growing emphasis on self medication ■ Money ○ Nutritional aid ■ Nutrients designed to increase physical power, mental strength, or mechanical edge ■ Example: protein supplements ○ Physiological aid ■ Designed to increase natural processes to increase physical power ■ Example: blood doping ○ Psychological aid ■ Designed to enhance psychological processes during sport performance to increase mental strength ■ Example: hypnosis ○ Mechanical aid ■ Designed to increase energy efficiency ■ Example: running shoes ○ How to control? ■ Test, educate, and alter the culture of winning ● What are the roles of stress and personality/behavioral factors on levels of sports injury, illness, pain, and rehabilitation? ○ Daily hassles are more strongly related to injury and illness than life stress ● What are the values to using the humanities to study some aspects of sports science? ○ Bioscience can tell us what IS the case ○ Humanities can tell us what OUGHT to be done about the case ○ Can’t work alone → always a two way street ● Know what cognitive appraisal, and distortion are and how they work in the psychology of sports injury and rehab. ○ Cognitive Appraisal ■ Athlete thinking about what has happened and what are their tools to overcome what has happened to them ● Everyone responds to injuries differently ● What is a malingering athlete and what can be done in knowing how to treat them? ○ Malinger = to pretend incapacity (as illness) so as to avoid duty or work ○ Conscious Malingering ■ Athlete who intentionally lies about an injury (or symptoms of an injury) for purposes of secondary gain ■ Other deceptive ■ Adaptive reaction to adverse circumstances ■ Usually because of need for attention and fears ■ Background ● Greatest need = attention; greatest fear = getting caught ● Learned behavior from parents, friends, other athletes, coaches ● Immunity from punishment ● Often spoiled in early years (lying and deception allowed ● Have a history of deceiving and exploiting others ■ Detection ● External incentive ● Narcissistic behavior (self-centered) ● Avoidance behavior ○ Eye contact ○ Talking about specifics ○ Does not keep appointments ○ Etc. ● Denies responsibility of arising from absence ● Inconsistent behavior ● Lack of emotional response to injury ● Lack of cooperation ○ Subconscious Malingerer ■ In an attempt to repress unacceptable desires / wishes, underlying energy gets directed towards somatic symptom ■ “The functional capabilities of an organ or systems become seriously compromised or completely inhibited despite the system / organ’s structural integrity” ● Self-deceptive ● Diagnosed by qualified personnel after authentic pathology has been ruled out ■ Symptoms of referral ● Do i recognize / know how much about his problem? ● Am i the appropriate resource? ○ Treatment ■ Develop a relationship and use active listening skills, particularly empathy ● May be challenging because you have little respect, like admiration for them ■ Malingering will continue only if it produces secondary gain (fear avoidance vs. attention) ■ Confront in a non-accusatory fashion ■ Give strictly defined boundaries and agree on goals ● e.g. athletes who cannot practice for 2 days prior to a game will not play, regardless of talent ■ Reward desired behavior, withhold reward for undesirable behaviors ■ Open the “need to know” circle (use referral) ● Know what we said about “kinds of pain.” ○ Pain plays a central role in an athlete’s life ○ Pain = sensory input (nociception) + subjective interpretation ○ Self-reported pain is always a reflection of biological events and interpretation ○ Cognitive distortions and pain ■ Catastrophizing? ● “Muscles tearing apart” vs. “tightness” ■ Personalization? ● “Like being stabbed with a knife” vs. “stabbing pain” ○ Observational measures of pain ■ Facial? ■ Vocal? ■ Gestural? ■ Postural? ○ Factors affecting pain perception ■ Personal factors ● Age and sex ● Pain history ● Coping skills ● Personality ● Perception and tolerance ■ Medical factors ● Amount of tissue damage ● Treatment ● Medication ● Skills of sports medicine team ■ Sociocultural influences ● Ethnic norms for pain expression ● Social support of friends, family, team ■ Sport context ● Pain expression norm for sport ● Sport situation winning / losing, championship game ● Importance of athlete ● Read Weinberg and Gould. ○ Athletic Injuries and Psychology ■ What are the psychological factors that play a role in sport injury levels? ● Personality factors ● Predisposed attitudes toward challenge ● Stress levels ■ What are the strategies for coping with injury-related stress? ● Have a balanced attitude toward sport ● Develop and use proper skills ● Reduce stress by… strategies ■ Which other factors are included in the stress model of sports injury? ● Perception of threat ● History of stressors ● Distractors ● Social support ● Misc. coping resources ■ What do the number of sport related injuries tell us? ● Injuries in sport is on the rise ● Sport is less violent ● Sport reflects social changes ● Science and technology have NOT had a profound effect on the safety of athletes ■ How do sport injuries happen? Relationship between stress and injury ● Attentional disruption ● Increased muscle tension ● Social influences (peer pressure, overbearing parents and coaches) ● All of which make the athlete prone to injury ● Read Young and White. ○ Threats to Sports Careers - Young and White Interview athletes and discuss ■ Hidden Pain ● Athletes deny the pain ● Suppressing physical and mental impact on the body ● Willingness to conceal pain ● Athletes blatantly ignore pain on the field and pass it off to teammates, coach, as if it’s not there → largely due to social pressure ■ Disrespected Pain ● Injury tolerance is possible because of an attitude of disrespect toward pain ● Differentiating pain from injury ● Often require prescription drug treatment and even surgery ● Female athletes also feel irreverent, even indignant about pain ● Coping mechanisms include denial and pain killers ● Block out pain ● Athletes use drugs / painkillers to deal with short-term sensation / block it out, but it doesn’t help fix the problem in long-term ■ Unwelcomed Pain ● The rules of masculinist sports culture also require that intense pain is controlled and masked ● Apparent negligence of those surrounding the athlete ● Being hurt appears to be unwelcomed by coaches ● Being hurt is seen as an inconvenience ● Female athletes concealed pain to avoid alienating teammates and coaches ● Athletes disciplined after quitting from an injury ● Teammates, coaches, family, friends react poorly to athlete in pain; doesn’t help the healing process ■ Depersonalized Pain ● Injury = bodily betrayal ● Injured parts referred to as objects ● Injured body part was not their own ● Athletes were humbled, even embarrassed, by the vulnerability of their bodies ● Athletes view their body instrumentally ○ They, the person, become detached from their pain and their body, so they don’t care about playing with pain ● Review all of our lectures on disengagement and retirement from sport. ○ Disengagement ■ The process of leaving sport or withdrawing from the role of sport competitor due to ● Cut (eliminated from the team) ● Injury / illness ● Age ● Voluntarily - for other reasons ○ Common themes experienced by most injured / retiring athletes ■ Loss of identity ■ Separation from “the crowd” (LOSS OF COMMUNITY) ■ Problems in relationships with others ■ Obesity and other health problems (LOSS OF BODY) ■ Aborted attempts to recapture lost status in non-athletic contests (LOSS OF STATUS) ○ “The Looking Glass Self” ■ Crowd is a “mirror” into which the athlete gazes ■ Mirror cracks with injury and disengagement ■ Feels alienated, isolated, and disconnected ● What do Jirasek and Hurych have to say about pain and suffering in sports injury? ○ Agon in Society ■ The process of challenge, interpersonal rivalry, and the endeavor to achieve victory through competition ■ Competition has been a social construction since pre-history and feudal periods ■ Parallels between sports and war ■ “Agon” extended beyond sports is not only competition, but the killings of one’s opponent ■ “The wish to fight, to find the best, is a constitutive aspect of personality and society” ■ The agon motive has shifted to symbolic death, often in and through sports ■ “The most important part from these symbolic forms of agon motive is found in sports” ■ Pain is an authentic part of the war agon ■ Seen in Homer and seen in modern day sports cliches ■ We suffer through training in preparation of war or war-like scenarios ○ 4 principles on the purpose of pain in sports ■ A sign of one’s training ■ A sign of maximum exertion to reach top achievement ■ A sign of substantial component of a specific sport ■ A demonstration of lost sports authenticity (when pain = loss of participation) ■ Pain as a physical phenomenon ■ Pain validates and connects the mind / body continuum ■ Pain is not just a cause and effect relationship, but subject to “the consequence and product of historical, cultural, and social conditions” ■ Pain as a meaningful phenomenon ■ We find meaning in our lives in and through the ways (and details of ) how we experience pain and suffering ■ Pain and suffering: a training regime and a way of living ■ How can we feel we are well enough prepared unless we have suffered? ● As soldiers? As athletes? As students? As workers? ● Why does an athlete’s opinion in healing a sports injury matter? ○ Helps them get invested in their rehabilitation process in order to buy in ○ Gives them a sense of ownership and control ● Review the psychosocial aspects of sports rehabilitation. ○ 5 Stages of Grief: an athlete may experience these post-injury ■ Denial: “I’m not that hurt” ■ Anger: “Damn, this sucks!” ■ Bargaining: “Okay, I’ll work on my other areas” ■ Depression: “Why do I feel sad about being hurt?” ■ Acceptance: “Okay, I’m mortal. Now how do we fix this and get on with my life?” ○ Common responses to injury ■ Disbelief ■ Fear ■ Rage ■ Depression ■ Tension ■ Fatigue ■ Rehab ○ Sociological effects of injury ■ Pressure from coaches, teammates, family, and media to return sooner than prudent ■ Due to need to win, financial demands over involvement of community, success ideology, additional psychological stress
More Less

Related notes for ENS 438

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.