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POL S 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: First Amendment To The United States Constitution, Freedom Of Assembly, Limited Government

Political Science
Course Code
POL S 101
Study Guide

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Midterm Review Guide, POLS 101 Fall 2014
Power and Politics
Manifest power and implicit power: you should know them well enough to recognize them in operation
Manifest Power - easy to observe operating
immediate coercion, force or threat
winners and losers in an openly contested public issue
Implicit Power - 3 kinds, harder to observe or prove
Control through legitimate authority
Control of public agenda:
Framing or publicizing an issue
Power through anticipated reactions
Control when the less powerful internalize what others say or want, even when it isn’t in their own interest
You should be able to recognize “political” acts
A decision to Do Nothing about a matter of common concern is still a “policy.” It is still political
make a common decision->Political act <-Some people exercising power over others
Are these political acts? YES OR NO
The trustees of SDSU decide to close a budget gap by raising
student fees.
A man decides to quit his job in order to write the great American
A neighborhood worried about crime enacts a Community Watch
A group of mothers form an organization (Mothers against drunk
driving) that successfully lobbies to have Group of people that
successfully lobbies to have stricter regulations on a the sale of
A kid on a playground regularly teases and bullies another kid. N
A kid on a playground bullies another kid, and teachers and the
principle opt to do nothing about it when it comes to their attention.
Public sphere vs. private sphere
“Politics” can occur either in the private sphere or in the public sphere
Private - private life outside government regulation
Public - within the realm of government and law
Definitions of Politics: Shively and Lasswell
Lasswell (1935) - Politics is about “who gets what, when, and how?”
Shively - Two criteria to make it a “political act.” Is the event...
Making a common decision?
Some people exercising power over others?
Shively Chpt. 1
consists of making a common decision for a group of people through the use of power
Implicit power
B does what A desires because B senses that A wants something done and B wishes to do it

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Manifest power
Observable action by A that leads B to do what A wants
Authority: What makes possible to concentrate power?
an efficient way to exercise power
A group of people with ultimate authority within a territory
What is “legitimacy,” and how can a government achieve it?
Legitimacy is the believe that the government should properly have authority
Types of legitimacy
1- By result: give people things they most want. ex:security.
2- By habit
3- By historical, religious or ethnic identity
4- By procedures. ex: democracy.
The Modern State
Imperial politics/Empire
No boundaries; empire has loose control/lack any clear external boundaries
villagers do not demonstrate cohesion
How did empires differ from nation-states?
Nation states: clear boundaries, common language/culture, manifest power (Political legitimacy), sacrificing yourself to the country,
ties to specific leaders
While empire: loose boundaries, loose control, different languages/culture, less power, hire army from other countries, particular
families pass power to one another.
Feudal society organization
Kings, Nobles, Knights and peasants
Peace of Westphalia
Closest to sovereignty, agreement between Imperial States of Europe and Holy Roman Empire(1648).
Europe got to make more decisions → greater power
What is a State?
Webers definition…A state is the entity that maintains ”Monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force”
Why do many states not end up protecting rights or promoting human well-being?
A major challenge in politics is how to harness the power of the state for good ends. (questionable)
Shively Chpt 3
Other definitions of a “state”
A state is what we call country. It is a particular kind of social group. A state is a political unit that has ultimate sovereignty
a political unit that has ultimate responsibility for the conduct of its own affairs
What is a public good, and why do we count on states to provide them? (also in lecture)
A public good is something that benefits all members of the community but that no one can be prevented from using; every member of
the community can enjoy the benefits of it whether that persons has helped pay for it or not. Ex: Public health programs, national
defense. We count on states to provide them because the state can solve this problem by using its coercive power to gather money
from the citizens in form of taxes and then using the money to provide for defense, health, etc
Why did the modern State develop? (debate)
From modern INDUSTRY and commerce...not from the people.

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A need for production of public goods
State-building in the European Union
association of 27 states in Europe that have agreed to coordinate their economic policy and policy areas.
It lacks the central authority of a real state
Includes free trade, agricultural policy, and common currency (euros)
Structure: 1- The Commision, 2- The European Council, 3- The Parliament, 4- The Court of Justice
Nations and Nationalism
What does the “international order of nation-states” entail?
Presumes that the world divides equally into “peoples” and homelands BUT historical homelands are largely a myth, “national
cultures” happened recently, and there is constant conflict over nations.
Nations as “imagined communities”
Group of strangers who believe they share something fundamental in common; ex: having a “homeland” or having a right to self-
Significance of family metaphors:
1. helps them feel tied together ( motherland, brotherhood)
2. Acts of leaders and states(creating songs, books, flags, and symbols) helped the leaders to claim “nation”.
How did the idea of a Nation come about?
Historical developments(language, history) or printing press. Because things were chaotic under the empire
Nationalism: you should know the definition and be able to recognize what kinds of conflicts it inspires
Nationalism is a passionate identification with the state
conflicts = secessionist movements, expansionist wars to unite “a people”, and expulsion and violence against internal minorities.
What continuing conflicts or struggles occur over national identity and why? Constant struggle over what key things a community
really shares: who is included or excluded? what quantities are central vs. marginal? What's in the middle of “real americans”?
Shively Chpt 3
What is the difference between “nation” and “state”?
a state is a political unit that has ultimate sovereignty, and a nation is a large group of people bound together by a common culture
Why is nationalism convenient for governments?
Easy to control people
Why do states represent themselves as “nation-states”?
Because states tries to promote feelings of common nationhood among the people living within its boundaries.
Policies in Industrialized and Developing States
You should recognize the various terms used to describe industrialized vs. less developed states in the world (also in Shively)
First World vs Second World Vs Third world
Aligned with US
Second World - Former Soviet Union
Countries not involved in the war
West vs East
Global North (Rich Countries) vs Global South (Poorer countries)
Why do industrialized states spend more money than less developed states?
b/c maintaining the “advance” is expensive
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