POL S 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pauperism, Bourgeoisie, Political Ethics
7 pages111 viewsFall 2014
Course CodePOL S 101
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1.British acts motivating independence (85-86, found in “The Tea Party Then and
The British Stamp Act of 1765, The Townshend Acts(1767), Quartering Act(1765),
Boston Massacre (1770).
2.Problems with the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation lacked both an executive and judicial branch. It granted most
powers to the original 13 state governments. The national government did not have the power to
tax, especially criticized for not sending needed supplies to American troops during the
Revolutionary War. It was unable to produce an enforceable peace treaty with Britain, create a
national currency that had any meaningful value, or establish reasoned public policy in either
domestic or foreign affairs. (88)
3.Beard’s characterization of the Founding Fathers’ motives (91)
Portrays Founding Fathers as wealthy property owners who were primarily interested in
protecting property rights. His analysis concludes that delegates has an economic interest in
either supporting or opposing ratification, and that delegates in favor of ratifying the
Constitution represented elite society…
4.Constitutional checks and balances (97)
A system of government where each branch of government can limit, amend, and/or nullify
the acts of another branch of government
5.Concurrent powers (102)
Powers granted to both state and national governments in the U.S Constitution. The power
to tax is an example.
6.Direct Democracy (114)
A system of democracy whereby citizens directly participate in the decision-making process of
7.Congressional apportionment: House of Reps determined by states population, Senate is 2/state
8.Federalism versus unitary and confederate forms of government- pg 99
-Unitary: grants all government control and power to one central government
-Confederate: gives weak authority to the central government and grants most powers to the
smaller state governments
-Federalist: power is shared between the national and state governments
9.Tocqueville on equality (equality of the condition)
Tocqueville in “Democracy in America” coins the term equality of the condition. By
equality of condition tocqueville means that all Americans have equal opportunity
economically for example, even those with limited expendable income could invest a small
amount in businesses and see a huge return on their investment over time. Also, at this
time, literature and educational opportunities were more readily available. The combination
of better business opportunities and access to education improved the social conditions of
all Americans at the time Tocqueville was writing.
10.First amendment to the Constitution (1791)
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The right to free speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion
11.Tenth amendment to the Constitution (1791)
-Federal powers are not stated in the Constitution are reserved for the states
12.Constitutional amendment process (117)
It must be altered periodically in order to reflect the wishes of those living under it. Amending
the Constitution requires a two step process that requires a proposal and ratification stage.
two step process that requires a proposal and a ratification stage
step 1) proposal stage: The Constitution stipulates that a proposal to amend the Constitution
approved by either 2/3 vote in the house AND senate, or by 2/3 of the states at a national
proposals to date have to come from 2/3 vote in the House and Senate
step 2) Ratification stage has two possible methods. It can either be ratified by majority
vote in 3/4 of the
state legislature (38 states), or by the approval of special state conventions called in at least
3/4 of the
A rule in the senate that requires 60 senators to vote to stop a filibuster.
A formal method used in the Senate in order to stop a bill from coming to a vote. Senators can
prevent a vote by making long speeches or by engaging in unlimited debate.
15. Gerrymandering p. 137
gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party
or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts.
Trading influence or voters among legislators to achieve passage of projects that are of interest to
Under-representation of the population that arises when one legislative district is considerably more
populated than the other
18. Congressional terms
-House of Reps: 2 years
-Senate: 6 years
19. Position-taking alá Mayhew: Position Taking is the public enunciation of a judgmental
statement on anything likely to be of interest to political actors. An example of position taking is
calling for the end of the war.
20. Fenno, home style and Washington style- pg 136
-Fenno argues that members of congress have two goals: (1) to enact meaningful public policy(ie-
Washington Style); and (2) reelection concerns (ie-Home Style)
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