PSY 101 Midterm: PSYCH 101 EXAM 2

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PSY 101
Mark Laumakis

LEARNING What is Learning? -Psychologists define learning as a relatively enduring change in behavior or thinking that results from our experiences Types of Learning -Classical conditioning ● Leaving via associations between two stimuli ● Previously neutral stimuli → didn’t do anything in the past until exposed to ● Sounds that trigger a sensation ● Sounds you did not respond to now make you feel a type of way -Operant Conditioning ● Learning via consequences (rewards and punishment) ○ Do more of something because rewarded ○ Do less of something because punishment -Observational Learning ● Learning via imitation ● Learn by watching/copying CLASSICAL CONDITIONING -Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) -Russian physiologist -Studied digestion in dogs ● How dogs salivate ● Pavlov’s dogs salivated in anticipation of being fed ● Events cued the dogs that feeding was imminent ● “Pairing” “association” of two stimuli that trigger this Classical Conditioning Terms - Unconditioned Stimulus (US) ● Does Not require any learning ● Food -Unconditioned Responses (UR) ● Natural, unlearning, innate response ● Salivate(UR) in response to food(US) -Conditioned Stimulus (CS) ● Previously neutral Stimulus ● Bell (paired with food first(US) until JUST THE BELL causes salivation, then it will be called a CS) -Conditioned Response (CR) ● Salivate in response to bell Major Phenomena of Classical Conditioning -Acquisition -Extinction -Spontaneous Recovery -Generalization -Discrimination ACQUISITION -The initial learning of a conditioned response (CR) -Learning curve shows how quickly learning takes place *picture* EXTINCTION -The diminishing of a conditioned response (CR) -CS is repeatedly presented without the US FORMULA SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY -The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) *picture* GENERALIZATION -The tendency for stimuli similar to the original CS to elicit a CR -Organism learns to responds to more than on CS with a CR -Ex. Barney is purple. Kid who is afraid of Barney could be afraid of something else purple! DISCRIMINATION -Organism learns to discriminate between a CS and stimuli that do not signal a US -Learned what I should be afraid of, what not to be afraid of ● What you should respond to ● What you shouldn't respond to ● Distinguishing what to respond to -To teach discrimination, repeatedly show the dog the hose! 3/7/17 Operant Conditioning: Two Ways to Decrease Behavior -Positive Reinforcement ● A response is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus ● Examples: ○ 1. Child cleans his/her room ○ 2. Parent presents candy as a reward -Negative Reinforcement Ex. Taking medicine to get
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