[HIST 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 12 pages long Study Guide!

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HIST 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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History 111: United States History to 1865
Lecture 1
Native Americans in North America:
-There is firm archaeological evidence of human presence in North America up to
12,000 years ago, but some estimates push habitation back as far as 40,000 years. Most
historians and archaeologist believe that Indian peoples migrated to America from Asia via the
Bering Strait.
-Three major groups; Pacific Indian Cultures, Ancestral Pueblo Societies, Mississippi
Valley Civilization.
Pacific Indian Cultures:
-Chumash Indians of the Santa Barbara region were traders who were part of an
extensive regional exchange network.
-Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reached present-day Santa Barbara in 1542.
and when he did he discovered some 15,000 Chumash people inhabited the coast and islands
of the region
Mississippi Valley Civilization:
-Poverty Point, established in the Mississippi valley in modern day Louisiana, the largest
North American city in ancient times (c. 1500 BC)
-Cahokia, located just outside of modern day Saint Louis became largest North
American city at its height in the twelfth century
-The Caddoan Mississippian culture encompassed a massive territory which included
parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.
Plymouth Rock:
-The Chesapeake Bay- site of the first English settlement in colonial North America.
The lost Colony of Roanoke
-In August 1587 a group of about 115 English settlers arrived on Roanoke Island, off the
coast of what is now North Carolina.
-When governor John White, returned to the island, He found no trace of the colony or
its inhabitants, and few clues to what might have happened, apart from a single word
Croatoan—carved into a wooden post
- Croatoan was the name of an island south of Roanoke that was home to a Native
American tribe of the same name
- Powhatan Pocahontas’ father was the chief of Tsenacomo, he had inherited rule over
six Algonquian villages and later gained control of some twenty-five others.
- John Smith reported that Powhatan, claimed he had wiped out the Roanoke settlers
because they were allied with the Chesepian, a tribe that had refused to join the Powhatan
Confederacy.
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