Finals Notes.docx

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Department
Geological Sciences
Course Code
GEOL 335
Professor
Lakshmi

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4 Consequences of development 1) improvements in standard of living 2) expansion has pushed the human enterprise effects to the planetary scale 3) forward momentum of the world economy is large 4) humans in an ethical position because they are at the planetary controls Biodiversity ­the variety of genetically distinct populations within a given species ­nations are suffering from ecosystem decline globally ­need to convince people that a healthy ecosystem will give material benefits ­nutrient cycling, pollination, water purification, etc. Threats ­land use conversion ­land degradation ­freshwater shortages ­watercourse modification ­invasive species ­overharvesting ­climate change ­ozone depletion ­pollution Drivers of deterioration ­clearing for agriculture ­corruption in timber trade ­rapid development Global climate change and Energy policy ­Kyoto protocol: calls for industrial countries to reduce their emission to at least 5% below that in  1990.  US refuses to sign ­global climate change has caused a 1 degree temp increase in 19  century…in 20  century it may be  between 2.5­10 degrees Celsius ­human induced warming is from many different greenhouse gases ­sea level rise could occur ­in artic there has been thinning of ice cap, melting of sea ice, opening of Northwest passage, warmer  for polar bears…in Antarctic there has been melting of the western Antarctic ice sheet ­other impacts are changes in gulf stream circulation (too much melting and adding of freshwater  may cause it to change or shut down) Steps ­boost industrial efficiency ­boost auto efficiency ­renewable energy ­fuel taxes Contrasts between agendas ­domestic agenda is immediate and close while global is remote ­top down ­domestic became legislation quickly ­ozone ­no clear villain in global Steps in a Convention ­problem identification and fact finding ­negotiation and bargaining…US lobbying and DuPont agreement to limit emissions ­formal adoption of treaty…has to be ratified by a certain number of countries ­implementation, monitoring, assessment, and strengthening Failure ­global agenda is complicated by: ­growth in population, inappropriate technology, excessive consumption, the market ­complex response is needed…not a single problem and response ­politics….contrast between global and local issues Treaties would be successful if: ­peace and stability ­favorable economic conditions ­open democr
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