[AFAM 002A] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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AFAM 002A
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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AFAM 2A Dr. Millner
Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
Africa
Africa is the 2nd largest continent on Earth (Asia is the largest)
11,700,000 square miles
African population = over 852 million people
The Northern 3rd of Africa consists of the Sahara Desert, in sub-Saharan Africa
Some facts to put the enormity of Africa into perspective:
China has about 1 million square miles
All of China, India, the US States, Western Europe, Argentina, and New Zealand could fit
into Africa
India has more than a billion people
New Zealand is over 100,000 square miles
China has over 60 cities with at least a million people populating
Africa has 55 nations
More than 1,000 languages spoken
Africa as a whole is not unified/united
What “gifts” does Africa provide to the rest of the world?
60% of the world’s diamonds come out of Southern Africa
80% of the world’s cobalt, which is a key ingredient in radiation treatments
80% of the world’s tantalum, which is used in surgical instruments
>50% of the world’s phosphates, which is used in commercial fertilizers
>50% of the world’s Lithium, the world’s lightest metal, essential for aircrafts
60% of the world’s Boxite and Gold
40% of the world’s antimony element that allows for medication to be supplied
o Can alleviate symptoms of HIV/AIDS
Quarts, important element in silicon chip
60% of the world’s cadmium, key component in Silicon Valley engineering activity
60% of the world’s feldspar comes from West Africa
Silicate, key component in computer industry
Ancient Civilizations
All humans have a common ancestor who lived in Africa 5-10 million years ago
The earliest civilization in Africa was Egypt, in the Nile River Valley
o They cultivated wheat, barley, and goats
o Around 3150 BCE, they became a unified kingdom
o Between 1500-1100 BCE, they expanded past the Bile Valley and created an empire
over the Coastal regions of Southwest Asia
o During this time, Egypt began using “pharaohs”, or great houses
Pharaohs had concubines, or women that would take the place as additional wives
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AFAM 2A Dr. Millner
Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
Women could also become pharaohs
o Alexander The Great invaded Egypt in 3318 BCE
His invasion resulted in a great decline of culture
In 30 BCE, the Roman Empire conquered Egypt
Egypt was a polytheistic religion (2 or more Gods)
o The Sun God, Ra represented immortality of the Egyptian state
o The God of the Nile, Osiris represented immortality of the Egyptian state
In 23 BCE, the Roman Army invaded the Kingdom of Kush in Eastern Africa
o Kush weakened during the decline of the Roman empire and trade with the Kush rapidly
collapsed
Axum is present-day Ethiopia.
o It became the 1st Christain state in Sub-Saharan Africa
West Africa
Garamantian Berbers are indigenous people of Northwest Africa who independently
introduced pyramids, Egyptian Gods, and ancestral worship.
Ancient Ghana: 1st known kingdom in Western Sudan founded by the Soninke, or the king,
people
o Excellent at warfare because of production of iron weapons
o Slaves is Ghana were usually war captives
o Commercialism and religious rivalries in the 12th century led to Ghana’s decline
The key to trade in Africa was the camel
West Africans began converting to Islam since the Arab traders arrived
The Empire of Mali (1230-1468)
o The most important city in Mali is Timbuktu.
Major hub for trade, slaves, gold, and salt
City attracted merchants
Later became a center of Islamic learning because of their mosques
Over 150 Islamic schools
The Empire of Songhai (1464-1591)
o One of the largest Western Sudanese empires
o After Sunni Ali died, Askia Muhammed Taure made himself King of Songhai
o Songhai reached its peak of influences under Askia Daoud (1549-1582)
o However, when balance of power in West Africa changed, Songhai and its leaders failed
to adapt, leading to its demise
The West African Forest Region
o Forest region of West Africa extends 2,00 miles along Atlantic coast
The earliest settlers of this region were the Nok, which is in present-day Nigeria
o In Senegambia, parts of the region were incorporated within the empires of Ghana &
Mali.
They were also exposed to Islamic influences
Had a very hierarchical society with royalty on top and slaves at the bottom
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