Biology Study Guide

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 021
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

'1) Nervous System a) Hierarchy of the Nervous System 2) Central Nervous System (CNS) a) allows us to interact with outside and inside stimuli b) composed of the brain and spinal cord 3) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) a) Carries information to and from the CNS. i) afferent neurons - towards the CNS ii) efferent neurons - away from CNS b) Includes the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system 4) Somatic Nervous System a) VOLUNTARY b) Carries signal to and from skeletal muscles, mainly in response to external stimuli 5) Automatic Nervous System a) INVOLUNTARY b) regulates internal environment by controlling smooth and cardiac muscles and the organs and glands of the digestive, cardiovascular, excretory and endocrine systems. c) Parasympathetic Nervous response i) Rest or Digest ii) Responsible for digestion, energy storage and relaxation iii) Primes the body for digesting food and resting iv) neurotransmitter acetylcholine (1) Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that acts on cholinergic nerves found in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. The normal functioning of Acetylcholine is very important to maintain a healthy balance in our lives. It’s imbalance has been known to cause diseases. d) Sympathetic Nervous Response i) Fight or Flight ii) Prepares the body for intense energy-consuming activities iii) Nerves that control body when it is actively moving or burning energy iv) neurotransmitter norepinephrine (1) is a hormone secreted by certain nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system, and by the medulla (center) of the adrenal glands. Its primary function is to help maintain a constant blood pressure by stimulating certain blood vessels to constrict when the blood pressure falls below normal. 6) Neurons a) functional units of the nervous systems b) very widely in shape but share some common features i) Sensory Neurons (1) convey sensory input toward CNS (touch, taste, smell, see) ii) Interneurons (1) Integration and interpretation of the sensory signals (2) allow afferent and efferent neurons to communicate (3) contained in CNS iii) Motor Neurons (1) conduct impulses from CNS to effectors (2) Effectors are muscle tissue or glands that carry out commands of CNS iv) Neurotransmitter (1) transmit information via chemicals (2) information carried by neurons and passed from 1 cell to the next using transmitters (3) wide variety of small molecules can act as neurotransmitters v) Reflex (1) involuntary response (sneeze) vi) Reflex Arc (1) is a neural pathway that controls an action reflex. In higher animals, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. 7) Multiple Sclerosis a) A chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision, and severe fatigue  Dendrites - carry out messages in and out or brain. Receives from brain/outside stimuli.  Axon - receives stimuli 1) Effector a) A cell or organ that produces a physiological response when stimulated by a nerve impulse. Examples of effectors include muscles and glands. The Muscle or gland is stimulated resulting in an immediate action taking place. 2) Main Regions of the Brain a) Hindbrain i) Regulates heart rate, breathing controls, blood pressure b) Midbrain i) body temperature regulation, motor control, and sleep cycles c) Forebrain i) contains the most sophisticated integrating centers in the brain. Human traits, emotions. 3) Brainstem a) The medulla oblongata b) heart rate, breathing controls, blood pressures 4) Cerebellum a) Center for body movement b) maintains muscle tone, posture, balance c) important in learning motor skills (riding a bike, dancing, swimming) d) Important in proprioception (knowing where the body is in space and time) 5) Diencephalon a) Perform numerous vital functions. Regulate wakefulness, controlling ANS. 6) Limbic System a) responsible for our emotional life, and has a lot to do with the formation of memories 7) Hypothalamus a) maintains homeostasis by influencing and regulating: i) blood pressure ii) heart rate iii) digestive activity iv) breathing rate v) hunger/thirst b) Coordinates the activities of the NS and the endocrine (normal) system 8) Thalamus a) contains most of the cell bodies that relay information to the cerebral cortex b) important to sensory experience, motor activity, and memory 9) Cerebral Cortex a) GRAY MATTER b) plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness c) help produce our most distinctive human traits 10)Corpus Callosum a) WHITE MATTER b) communication between hemispheres 11)Frontal Lobe a) Motor Functions, Higher Order Functions, Planning, Reasoning, Judgement, Impulse Control, Memory 12)Temporal Lobe a) Auditory Perception, Memory, Speech, Emotional Response, Visual Perception 1) Occipital Lobe a) is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex 2) Parietal Lobe a) integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation 3) Special Senses a) Supply us with detailed information about the world b) Sensory structures i) Gather information and pass it on to the CNS c) Sight, Sound, Smell (Olfaction), taste (Gustation), Touch d) Interpreted in the Temporal Lobe. 4) Nearsightedness a) The eye is too long for the lens to focus the light rays on the retain b) the image is spread out and fuzzy when it hits the retain 5) Farsightedness a) Opposite of nearsightedness b) the eyeball is too short or the lens cannot become round enough c) Astigmatism i) Cornea is imperfectly shaped, resulting in an uneven pattern of light hitting the retina ii) some areas of the image are in focus, but not others 6) Parts of the Eye a) Pupil i) Allows light to enter the eye and reach the inner most layer retina b) Retina i) inner most layer ii) contains photoreceptors: rods and cones c) Selera i) protects the eye d) Iris i) regulates amount of light entering the eye (colored) e) Cornea i) refracts light f) Lens i) Fine focusing of light g) Optic Nerve i) transmits impulses from retina to brain h) Cones i) responsible for color ii) contain visual pigments, photospins, which absorbs bright light. iii) Stimulated by bright light and can distinguish color i) Rods i) Ability to see in dim light and dark ii) Contains visual pigment, rhodopsin, which can absorbs dim light iii) Detect shape and movement 1) Tinnitus a) Ringing in the ears that does not get better or go away b) Pulsatile (like a heartbeat) tinnitus is often caused by sounds created by muscle movements near the ear, changes in the ear canal, or blood flow (vascular) problems in the face or neck. You may hear sounds such as your own pulse or the contractions of your muscles. c) Nonpulsatile tinnitus is caused by problems in the nerves involved with hearing. You may hear sounds in one or both ears. Sometimes this type of tinnitus is described as coming from inside the head. d) The most common cause of tinnitus is hearing loss that occurs with aging (presbycusis), but it can also be caused by living or working around loud noises (acoustic trauma). Tinnitus can occur with all types of hearing loss and may be a symptom of almost any ear disorder. Blood & Circulation  Be able to diagram the direction of blood flow between the chambers of the heart (in correct left-right orientation), and the lungs and capillary beds of the body.  KNOW the different parts of the human heart and how the four chambers operate together. Heart chamber is a general term used to refer to any of the four chambers of the mammalian heart (an organ): Right atrium: receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Right ventricle: receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Left atrium: receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Left ventricle: receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.  Know the sequence and flow of blood into and out of the heart. Superior vena cava ->right atrium -> right ventricle -> pulmonary trunk -> left/right pulmonary artery -> left/right lung (DEOXYGENATED) left/right lung -> left/right pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> left ventricle -> arch of aorta (OXYGENATED)  Which side of the heart contains oxygenated blood? LEFT. (The right side of your heart receives oxygen-poor blood from your veins and pumps it to your lungs, where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. The left side of your heart receives oxygen-rich blood from your lungs and pumps it through your arteries to the rest of your body. )  Where does the systemic system take blood from the heart? The body  What kind (oxygenated or deoxygenated)? oxygenated  Where does the pulmonary system take blood from the heart? What kind (oxygenated or deoxygenated)? To the lungs. Deoxygenated. 1) Circulatory System a) Transports essential nutrients to all cells in the body b) removes waste products from these small cells c) Parts: Blood transports, Blood vessels, Heart 2) Three Parts of the Circulatory System a) Blood i) Erythr
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