Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 1

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 110
Professor
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

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Description
Abnormal Psychology Study Guide for Exam 1 1. Chapter 1 a. Abnormal Psychology i. branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. ii. Three parts b. Abnormal Behavior i. A psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical or culturally expected 1. Psychological Dysfunction a. Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning 2. Personal Distress a. Difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles b. Impairment is set in the context of a person’s background 3. Atypical or Unexpected Cultural Response a. Reaction is outside cultural norms c. Diagnosis i. The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation d. Symptoms i. departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, indicating the presence of disease or abnormality. ii. symptom is subjective, observed by the patient, and cannot be measured directly. e. Prevalence i. How many people in the population as a whole have the disorder f. Incidence i. Statistics on how many new cases occur during a given period of the disorder g. Presenting Problem i. Presents is a traditional shorthand way of indicating why the person came to the clinic h. Clinical Description i. Unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that make up a specific disorder ii. Types of problems or disorders that you would find in a clinic or hospital and to the activities connected with assessment and treatment i. Prognosis i. The anticipated course of a disorder j. Learning (Behavior Model) i. classical conditioning 1. type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response. 2. Conditioning is one way in which we acquire new information, particularly information that is somewhat emotional in nature. k. Shaping i. process of reinforcing successive approximations to a final behavior or set of behaviors. 2. Chapter 2 a. Diathesis-Stress Model i. Individuals inherit tendancies to express certain traits or behaviors, which may then be activated under conditions of stress ii. What we already have (genetics) and how the environment interact with the gene b. Reciprocal Gene Environment Model i. A theory of psychology that helps to explain how one gets a psychological disorder. It says that a person, who is predisposed to a certain disorder (like depression), will inadvertently create an unsuitable environment for themselves which will propagate the accumulation of the disorder. ii. Example: A person with a genetic vulnerability to depression will have bad relationships or close people off and, as a result, become depressed. c. Central Nervous System i. Brain and Spinal Cord d. Peripheral Nervous System i. Autonomic and Somatic nervous systems 1. Autonomic Branch of PNS a. Regulates cardiovascular system and body temperature b. Regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion 2. Parasympathetic and sympathetic branches a. Parasympathetic: at peace, resting b. Sympathetic: fight or flight response e. Neurotransmitters i. Function 1. chemicals that facilitate the transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another neuron or body cell. 2. Messengers between neurons ii. Anagonists 1. Substances/drugs that activate receptors iii. Antagonists 1. Substances/drugs that attach to receptors and prevent them from being activated f. Learned Helplessness i. occurs when rats or other animals encounter conditions over which they have no control. ii. condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards g. Prepared Learning i. According to the concept of prepared learning, we have become highly prepared for learning about certain types of objects or situations over the course of evolution because this knowledge contributes to the survival of the species h. Studies of people with social contacts in elderly i. You may have known an elderly person who far outlived his or her expected time to witness a significant family event, such as a grandchild’s graduation from college. Once the event has passed, the person dies. Another common observation is that if one spouse in a longstanding marital relationship dies, particularly an elderly wife, the other often dies soon after, regardless of health status. It is also possible that social relationships facilitate health-promoting behaviors, such as restraint in the use of alcohol and drugs, getting proper sleep, and seeking appropriate health care. ii. Elderly who had more social contacts were less depressed. Those with less social contacts were depressed. iii. Elders with less social contact, when fallen ill, have a shitload of family be there to make them want to live. i. Importance of social contact i. More social contact = longer life, stronger immune system, positive health j. Equalfinality i. principle that in open systems a given end state can be reached by many potential means ii. Many different ways to lead to the same outcome 3. Chapter 3 a. Clinical Assessment i. systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in an individual presenting with a possible psychological disorder b. Prognosis i. predicting the likely outcome of one's current standing c. Diagnosis i. process of determining whether the particular problem afflicting the individual meets all criteria for a psychological disorder, as set forth in the fourth edition, text revision, of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV-TR d. Classification i. any effort to construct groups or categories and to assign objects or people to these categories on the basis of their shared attributes or relations—a nomothetic strategy e. Validity i. whether something measures what it is designed to measure f. Reliability i. degree to which a measurement is consistent g. Standardization i. process by which a certain set of standards or norms is determined for a technique to make its use consistent across different measurements h. Clinical interview i. the core of most clinical work, is used by psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals ii. gathers information on current and past behavior, attitudes, and emotions, as well as a detailed history of the individual’s life in general and of the presenting problem iii. Mental Status Exam 1. systematic observation of somebody’s behavior. a. Appearance and behavior b. Thought process c. Mood and affect d. Intellectual functioning e. Sensorium (awareness of surrounding) i. Behavioral assessment i. direct observation to assess formally an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior in specific situations or contexts j. ABCs of Observation i. Observing the here and the now ii. Informal Observation 1. Listening to a person’s interpretation and recollection of the event iii. Formal Observation 1. identifying specific behaviors that are observable and measurable (called an operational definition) k. Etiology i. the study of origins, has to d
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