[PHI 1000C] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (27 pages long!)

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6 Feb 2017
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St. John's University
PHI 1000C
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Philosophy
Introduction
What is Philosophy?
-about our beliefs and attitudes about ourselves and the world
-an attempt to coordinate different ideas into a single viewpoint, while defending what
you believe against those who disagree
Goal of Philosophy
-clearly and convincingly argue your beliefs, while appreciating differences between
viewpoints with the intention to resolve difficulties.
-this requires individuals to actually think about the complex meaning of buzzwords
and terms in context of the problems they are intended to solve.
Primary Features
-Articulation
putting ideas in clear, concise, understandable language.
-Argument
supporting ideas with reason, principles, and observations
-Analysis
understanding an idea by discussing and clarifying components
-Synthesis
gather different ideas into single, unified function
Philosophy, through reflection and by means of articulation and argument, allows us to
analyze and critically examine our ideas, and to synthesize our vision of ourselves and
the world, to put the pieces together in a single, unified, defensible vision.
Fields of Philosophy
-Metaphysics
The theory of reality and the ultimate nature of things.
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-Ethics
The study of good and bad, right and wrong; the search for a good life
-Epistemology
The study of knowledge
-Logic
The study of formal structures of sound thinking and can Good argumentation
-Religion
The study of the nature of religion and the nature of the divine
-Political
The study of foundations and the nature of society and the State
-Aesthetics
The study of the nature and art of experiences
Concepts, framework and knowledge
-Concepts
The basic unit of projects and viewpoints; often abstract in philosophy
-Conceptual framework
Concepts rarely occur in isolation; they almost always tie into a framework and can
vary by Society
-Empirical knowledge
Based on experience, observation, or experiments
-A Priori knowledge
Independent of any particular experience
Chapter 1
Philosophers of note
-Socrates—one of the greatest philosophers
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