[ANAT 1000] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (29 pages long)

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ANAT 1000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Martha Briscoe
Anatomy 1000
January 17, 2017
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy
I) Anatomy: The study of external and internal structures of the human body and their
physical inter-relationships
a. The study of morphology: meaning anatomy requires an understanding of human
structure
b. Anatomical information provides clues for probable function
c. Physiology is the study of function
i. Functional or physiological mechanisms can only be explained in terms of
underlying anatomy
II) Types of Anatomy Study
a. Developmental Anatomy: Embryology
b. Gross/Regional Anatomy: Usually involved dissection
c. Microscopic Anatomy: Histology
d. Systemic Anatomy: How the systems work together in the body (WHAT WE
STUDY IN THIS COURSE)
i. Levels of Organization
1. Cellular
2. Tissue
3. Organ
4. Organ system
5. Organism
III) Characteristics of Living Organisms
a. Ability to respond to a stimulus
b. Ability to grow and mature
c. Ability to pass on genetic information
d. Ability to move
e. Ability to take in nutrients and excrete wastes
f. Ability to breakdown complex molecules into simpler ones
g. Ability to metabolize simple molecules into more complex ones
IV) Directional References and Anatomical Position
a. Anatomical Position: Standing straight up with feet together and arms at the
sides
i. Anterior: toward the front
ii. Posterior: toward the back
iii. Ventral: toward the front
iv. Dorsal: toward the back
v. Medial: toward the middle
vi. Lateral: toward the outside
vii. Proximal: toward something
viii. Distal: away from something
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b. Planes of the Body
i. Sagittal: separates right from left
ii. Frontal: separated anterior/ventral from posterior/dorsal
iii. Transverse/trans-axial: separates top and bottom usually how you see
images from CT scans and MRI’s (*READ IMAGES: FROM THE FOOT
OF THE PATIENT TO THE BACK OF THE HEAD*)
V) Ventral body Cavities:
a. Thoracic Cavity
i. Pleural Cavity
ii. Pericardial Cavity
b. (Diaphragm separates the two)
c. Abdominopelvic cavity
i. Abdominal cavity
ii. Pelvic cavity
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