ANTHRO 2 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Primatology, Theory-Theory, Bioarchaeology

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Santa Monica College
ANTHRO 2
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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A.S.
ANTHRO 2
CH 1
Antrhopological Perspective
- Anthropology: study of humankind in all times and places
- focuses on interconnections and interdependence on all aspects of the human experience
in all places
- past and present
- Holistic Perspective: principle; human culture and bio must be viewed in broad context
so they may understand their interconnections and interdependence
- helps anthros address what human nature is
- helps anthros prevent their own cultural ideas and values from distorting their research
- strive to get objective knowledge about human beings
- Ethnocentrism: a belief that the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones
- anthro is concerned with unbiased evaluation
- traditionally focus on non-Western peoples and cultures
- cross-cultural and long term evolutionary perspectives
- Culture-bound: produces theories about the world and reality based on assumptions
and values from the researcher’s own culture
Anthropology and Its Fields
- 4 subdisciplines
- researchers in each field gather/analyzed data to explore similarities and differences
among humans
- individuals within the fields practice applied anthro
- Applied anthropology: use of knowledge and methods to solve practical problems
- Medical anthropology: specialization that brings theoretical and applied approaches
from cultural and biological anthro to study human health and disease
- emerged in 1920s
- shows connections between human health and political and economic forces
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Cultural Anthropology
- Cultural anthro: studies patterns in human behavior, thought, and emotions
- focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures
- culture: a society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, emotions, and
perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and which generate behavior
and are reflected in that behavior
- standards by which societies operate on
- these are socially learned (not acquired from biological inheritance)
- all aspects of culture makes up a unified whole
- cultural anthro has 2 components:
1. Ethnography:
- detailed description of a culture based on fieldwork (on-location research)
- Ethnography fieldwork is a combo of social participation and personal observation
within the community being studied
- Ethnographic method is called participant observation
2. Ethnology:
- allows anthros to develop theories that explain why certain differences or
similarities occur among groups
Ethnography:
- seeks to gain best possible understanding of a particular way of life
- must observe carefully without placing too much emphasis on one cultural feature
- understands cultural systems by discovering how all parts of culture relate to one
another
- soc, polit, cult, econ, and relig practices and institutions
- much enthnographic work happens in remote villages (in Asia, Africa, Latin
America, etc.)
- discipline developed after mid 1900s
- now anthros study diverse groups instead of just studying non-Western groups (due
to decline in colonialism and more industrialization)
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