[PHILOS 7] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (12 pages long)

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Santa Monica College
PHILOS 7
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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A.S.
[2/17/16]
INTRO and CH 1.1
INTRODUCTION
What is philosophy?
- Philosophy:
- philosophy = philos (love) + sophos (wisdom)
- philosophers = lovers of wisdom
- Greek time(s) to 17th/18th centuries, anyone who pursued knowledge = philosophers
- diff. disciplines (psych, chem, physics) broke off
- “lover of wisdom” = no longer enough to distinguish a philosopher
What is the break down of philosophy?
(1) critical evaluation of the justification of human beliefs
(2) analyze the concepts and terms we use express these beliefs
- these two go hand in hand
What is a basic belief? What do basic beliefs have to do with philosophy?
- Basic belief: a belief other beliefs are dependent on
- truths or falsity affect the other beliefs that depend on it
(ex): belief in God
- philosophers are interested in why certain beliefs are here
- once justification is given, logical analysis can take place
- philosophers look for similarities between diff. beliefs
- all beliefs are analyzed without bias
- analyzing beliefs = important; all beliefs have consequences
(ex): A child dies because his parents refuse to give him a transfusion due to religious beliefs
- logically analyzing arguments = important to think critically about them
- thinking critically = control over your own beliefs
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CHAPTER 1
What is logic? What are arguments? What is a statement? What is truth value?
- Logic: science that evaluates arguments
- purpose of logic = develop techniques that help distinguish good arguments from bad ones
- Argument: a group of statements which (premises/evidence) are claimed to support for one of the
others (conclusion)
- every argument is placed into 2 groups: arguments where premises support the conclusion and
those that don’t
- Statement: a sentence with truth value
- a sentence that is true or false
- Truth value: truth and/or falsity of a statement
What is a premise? What is a conclusion?
- Premise: statements that set forth reasons/evidence; supports conclusions
- there may be more than one premise
- Conclusion: a statement the evidence is supposed to support
- there can only be one conclusion
What are premise indicators? What are conclusion indicators?
* keywords can serve as P or C indicators
- Premise indicators:
- since, in that, as indicated by, because, as, for, given that, for the reason that,..
- Conclusion indicators:
- therefore, so, implies that, we may conclude, for this reason,...
What if some arguments contain no P/C indicators?
- some arguments don’t have indicators
- common pattern in arguments lacking indicators: the conclusion is stated first, and the remaining
statements are premises
How to restructure arguments according to logical principles?
- premises are listed first (P1, P2, P3,...)
- conclusion is listed last
(ex):
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