[PSYCH 11] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (22 pages long)

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Santa Monica College
PSYCH 11
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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A.S.
Psych 11
[6/20/16]
Chapter 1: Theories and Research Strategies
What’s the definition of Child Development?
- Child Development: area of study that tries to understand constancy and change from conception
through adolescence
- part of a interdisciplinary field known as (DS)
- Developmental science: includes all changes we experience throughout a lifetime
What are the (3) Domains?
- domains are influenced by each other
- consider domains with each period (from infancy to adolescence)
(1) Physical:
- changes in: body size, function of health systems, health/nutrition, perceptual, and motor skills
- Gross motor skills: skills that involve balance and big muscles
(ex): walking, running, skipping, crawling, etc.
- Fine motor skills: skills that involve smaller muscles
(ex): writing, texting, eating, playing the trumpet, etc.
(2) Cognitive:
- changes in intellectual skills: attention, understanding, memory, language, and creativity
(3) Emotional and Social:
- changes in: emotional communication, interpersonal skills, moral reason., and behavior
What are the (6) Periods?
(1) Prenatal:
- from conception to birth
- 9 mo. (38 wk) period
- one-celled organism turns into human
- can adjust to outside world
(2) Infancy/Toddler-hood:
- from birth to 2 y/o
- dramatic changes in body and brain
- begin to speak and walk
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- make intimate ties with others
- infancy = 1 y/o
- toddler = 2 y/o
(3) Early childhood:
- from 2 to 6 y/o
- “play/pre-school” years: learn by playing, moving, and being active
- motor skills = refined
- children have more self-control
- develop sense of morality
- have limited understanding of the world
(4) Middle childhood:
- from 7 to 11 y/o
- learn about wider world
- take on more responsibilities
- improved motor skills
- master academic skills (reading, writing, math, etc.)
- understand morality, friendship, and self
(5) Adolescence:
- from 11 to 18 y/o
- puberty
- thoughts = complex, abstract, etc.
- school is directed for higher education and work
- define own values and goals
(6) Emerging adulthood:
- from 19 to 25 y/o
- brain = still developing
- not fully an adult
- still figuring out what you want to do/be
What’s a theory? What’s a hypothesis?
- Theory: integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
- guide and give meaning to what we see
- serve as a sound basis for actions/public policies
- must be verified by research; findings must be the same over time
- subject to change
- Hypothesis: proposed explanation based on limited evidence; starting point for research
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