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PHI 151 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Multiple Realizability, Mad Scientist, Thought Experiment

4 pages26 viewsSpring 2016

Course Code
PHI 151
Study Guide

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PHI 151: Intro to Philosophy
Review for Midterm Exam
Socrates (Plato):
What is the Socratic Method? How does it work? What is the goal? What does Socrates
mean when he refers to himself as the gadfly of Athens?
o1. Socratic Method: a method used by Socrates that involved interrogation
and conceptual analysis.
o2. It works by asking questions (mainly definitions and pointing out
incoherence) and then used the definitions to determine whether the answer
is correct or not.
o3. The goal is to prove that the person being questioned actually knows what
they’re talking about.
o4. The gadfly bites the horse and wakes it from sleeping; Socrates is the same
way in that he questions people and wakes them from their intellectual
slumber (reality check); tries to get them to think about truth, wisdom, and
In what sense does Socrates claim that he is wiser than most people?
oSocrates claims to be wiser than most people because he KNOWS he is
ignorant while others are also ignorant but falsely believe they have
What is Euthyphro’s first replies to the question of what piety is? Why does Socrates
object to that?
o1. “doing as I’m doing; that is to say, prosecuting anyone who is guilty of
murder or sacrilege”
o2. Socrates objects because it is an example, not a definition.
What is Euthyphro’s final definition of piety? What challenge does Socrates present to
this definition? (Be sure to explain both sides of the dilemma.)
o1. Final definition: Pious is unanimously god-loved; impious is
unanimously god-hated
o2. The gods love something and that makes it pious (but then ANYTHING
could be pious) or a thing is pious and that makes the gods love it but it
doesn’t explain what sort of things inspire the gods’ approval.
How does Socrates argue that he would not have intentionally corrupted the youth?
oSocrates would not intentionally corrupt the youth because then they would
have turned around and harmed him (because he harmed them first), and if
Socrates had harmed someone, the family would have complained, but no
families had complained.
Why does Socrates think it would be unjust to ignore the law and escape from prison?
(He gives two general reasons.)
o1. It is unjust to harm innocent people and violate a fair agreement; laws
protect citizens (which means if he disobeyed the laws, then everybody
would disobey and undermine the laws and people would get harmed) and
Athens protected him, so he obeys (never had a reason to complain about his
life in Athens so he can’t complain about his punishment)
In what sense did Socrates agree to obey the laws of Athens? Explain.
oHe compares his relationship to Athens with a child and parents. Athens
gave him benefits and protected him, so he is respectfully obligated to obey
the laws of Athens.
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