PSY 436 Study Guide - Final Guide: Dysphoria, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity

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PSY 436 Exam 4 Review
Chapter 11: (80)
Normal sexual functioning can be defined how?
o Biological
o Cultural
Motivation for sex derives from
o Reproductive functions
In humans sexual behavior is influenced by:
o Needs for affiliation, affection, and pleasure
Cultural Influences on Normal Sexual Functioning
o Transvestism and transsexuality seem normal in some cultures
o Mutilation of genitalia is common in a number of cultures.
o Homosexuality is no longer defined as a disorder in this culture.
Gender Identity:
o Our sense of ourselves as either male or female
Sexual Orientation:
o The preference we have for the sex of a partner
Difference between gender identity & sexual orientation:
o Gender identity is how we view ourselves
o Sexual orientation is the gender of the person we prefer to be with
Observation tells us what about gender and sexual orientation:
o They are either fuzzy categories, with considerable overlap OR continua with no
true points of separation
All humans start out phenotypically as:
o Undifferentiated
Gender Dysphoria(GID) occurs when:
o A person feels that they are really of the opposite sex and has an aversion to
same-sex clothing and activities
Gender Dysphoria prevalence:
o 5 to 14 in 100,000 for me
o 2 to 3 in 100,000 for women
o Occurs more often in boys than girls and more often in men than women
Gender dysphoria was previously called:
o Gender identity disorder
Gender dysphoria in children:
o Marked incongruence between experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender
o At least 6 months duration
o Plus 6 or more of: (9)
Strong desire to be other gender
Strong preference for cross-dressing
Strong preference for cross-gender roles in fantasy
Strong preference for toys or activities stereotypically preferred by other
Strong preference for playmates of other gender
In boys: strong rejection for typically masculine toys, games, activities,
and rough-and-tumble play
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PSY 436 Exam 4 Review
In girls: strong rejection of typically feminine masculine toys, games, and
Strong dislike of one’s sexual anatomy
Strong desire for primary and secondary sexual characteristics of one’s
experienced gender
Gender dysphoria in Adolescents and Adults:
o Same as children, only 2 of signs.
o Marked by strong desire to be of the opposite gender and identifying oneself as a
person of the opposite gender
Gender dysphoria is comorbid with:
o Severe stress
o Depression
o Social isolation
Therapies for Gender dysphoria: (2)
o Body alteration programs
o Psychological alteration of gender identity
Body alteration programs:
o Psychological evaluation
o 6-12 months psychotherapy for anxiety or depression (if present)
o Cosmetic surgery can be used to alter appearance
o Hormonal treatment to induce breast formation
o Sex-reassignment surgery involves surgical alteration of the genitals
Biological treatment:
o Primary biological is sex reassignment surgery
Sex reassignment surgery:
o For men, external genitalia and facial hair are removed, a vagina is created, and
hormones are given to develop breast and soften masculine features.
o For women, an external phallus is created, internal sexual organs and possibly
breasts are removed, and hormones are given to develop more masculine features.
Paraphillias involve:
o Sexual behaviors that reflect anomalous activity preferences: courtship, disorder,
pain and suffering, unusual/inappropriate targets for sex
Fantasies, urges, or behaviors of paraphilias must:
o A) Intense arousal or interest in behavior enduring for at least 6 months
o B) Causes significant distress or impairment (this criterion includes distress/harm
to others)
Voyeurism involves:
o A strong preference for obtaining sexual gratification by watching others in a state
of undress or having sexual relations
Exhibitionism involves:
o A recurrent marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by exposing
one’s genitals to an unwilling stranger
Frotteurism involves:
o The sexually-orientated touching of an unsuspecting person
Telephone scatalogia:
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PSY 436 Exam 4 Review
o Sexual arousal via obscene electronic communications to others
o Adults who derive sexual gratification from physical/sexual contact with children
Sex offender:
o A legal one that refers to someone convicted of child sexual maltreatment
Incest refers to:
o Sexual relations between members of a family
Most common incest relations:
o A brother and sister
Penile plethysmograph measures:
o Circumference changes
Vaginal plethysmograph measures
o Increase blood flow
Sexual sadism refers to:
o A preference for obtaining sexual gratification by inflicting pain on others
Sexual masochism refers to:
o A preference for obtaining sexual gratification by subjecting oneself to pain or
Fetishism involves:
o A reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal
Transvestic Fetishism involves:
o A man who is sexually aroused from wearing women’s clothing (but still views
himself as a man) or vice versa
Atypical Paraphilic Disorders involve:
o Some unusual focus of arousal during sexual activity as well as distress or
impairment, but are quite rare.
o Amputees or being an amputee
o Being observed, filmed, or on stage
o Pretending to be a baby in diapers
o Surprise assault of another person
o Sex-reassigned partners
o Stealing from others
o Enemas
o Erotic, “dirty” talk between a couple
o Contact with corpses
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