BIO 201 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Natural Selection, Mutation, Evolution

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BIO 201
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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MODULE 1: Nature and Process of Science
Learning Objectives
1. Be able to differentiate everyday and scientific definitions of theories, laws, hypotheses
and facts.
Theories: well substantiated explanations of patterns; processes that explain
how (sometimes why) the pattern happens
Laws: repeated and consistent patterns
Hypotheses: tentative statements that are tested
Facts: patterns that state what occur
2. Be able to differentiate observations and inferences, and explain how they are used in
science.
Observations are a pattern that only states what occurs while inferences are processes that
explain the observations. Inferences are unobservable and it explains why or how the
pattern occurs.
3. Be able to explain why biologists build models, and how models can help to uncover
unobservable mechanisms or processes.
Biologists build models because models help bridge the unobservable and the observable
world. Models help biologists build explanations of natural phenomena.
4. Be able to correct common misconceptions about science and how it works.
o Myth 1: Hypotheses become theories, which become laws
Theories can never become laws because laws are consistent patterns that states
“what” happened while theories are the explanations of those patterns that states
“why” or “how” a phenomenon occurred.
o Myth 2: A Hypothesis is an Educated Guess
Hypothesis could mean a generalizing hypothesis, a prediction, or an explanatory
hypothesis
o Myth 3: A General an Universal Scientific Method Exists
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o Myth 4: Evidence Accumulated Carefully Will Result in Sure Knowledge
o Myth 5: Science and its Methods Provide Absolute Truth
When new information is discovered it can falsify the findings. Therefore, science
and its methods can’t provide absolute truth.
o Myth 6: Science is Procedural More Than Creative
o Myth 7: Science and its Methods Can Answer All Questions
o Myth 8: Scientists are Particularly Objective
o Myth 9: Experiments are the Principle Route to Scientific Knowledge
o Myth 10: All Work in Science is Reviewed to Keep the Process Honest
5. Describe the main types of models that are used in scientific research.
There are three major type of models that are used in scientific research. They are:
a) Physical Model:
Example: Wind Tunnels
b) Conceptual Model:
Often make use of metaphor and/or analogy
Example: electric current, electron shells, evolutionary tree
c) Mathematical Model:
Quantitative representations of a system using numerical representations, uses
variables
Example: computer simulations
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Document Summary

Learning objectives: be able to differentiate everyday and scientific definitions of theories, laws, hypotheses and facts. Theories: well substantiated explanations of patterns; processes that explain how (sometimes why) the pattern happens. Facts: patterns that state what occur: be able to differentiate observations and inferences, and explain how they are used in science. Observations are a pattern that only states what occurs while inferences are processes that explain the observations. Inferences are unobservable and it explains why or how the pattern occurs: be able to explain why biologists build models, and how models can help to uncover unobservable mechanisms or processes. Biologists build models because models help bridge the unobservable and the observable world. Models help biologists build explanations of natural phenomena: be able to correct common misconceptions about science and how it works, myth 1: hypotheses become theories, which become laws. Theories can never become laws because laws are consistent patterns that states.

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