BIO 321 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism, Genotype Frequency, Genetic Drift
Describe the flow of information from a protein coding dna sequence, through mrna, translation into a protein. Rna polymerase binds to dna at its promoter near the beginning of the gene. Rna polymerase separates dna strands, providing 2 single stranded templates. Rna polymerase builds rna molecule out of complementary nucleotides. Terminators signal that transcription is complete, producing 2 mrna strands. During translation, a ribosome reads the genetic code to make amino acid chains based on the codons chains of amino acids form proteins. Explain why mutations occur and in what sense mutations are random. Mutations occur b/c dna replication isn"t perfect and environmental factors can cause damage to dna. Most mutations are deleterious or neutral (some don"t affect the amino acid chain, thus leaving proteins unaffected) Neutral - doesn"t affect survival or fitness. Mutations occur by chance through genetic drift. Distinguish between somatic and germ line mutations and describe the importance of each to individuals and populations.