[GEO 103] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 24 pages long Study Guide!

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GEO 103
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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*Note: Remove last 'i' in video link.
Geo for earth, logos for reason.
It is Greek in origin.
Also concerned with processes on other rocky planets and their moons.
Geology is the study of Earth
What is Geology?
We try to study the changes in the planet in the last 4.6 billion years including the
evolution of life.
This also includes how and why past events happened based on rock records,
changes in the planet, and the implication for present global ecosystems.
In Historical Geology, we try to understand how these processes have changed and
altered the planet over time.
Principles of historical geology include aid in interpreting Earth's history including some
practical applications.
Historical Geology
It is also used to gather and analyze facts or data.
The scientific method is an orderly and logical approach to describe nature.
This should be "Falsifiable" or prove false, at least in principle.
The hypothesis is a tentative explanation to explain a certain phenomena that is observed
using prior knowledge.
Scientists make predictions using hypotheses and then test them to verify them.
Theory - when one or a collection of hypothesis continues to explain the observations,
scientists propose it as a theory. These become more generalize and use a broad series of
events rather than 1.
Scientific Method
It is a colloquial usage which refers to speculation or a conjecture.
Its scientific usage is that it is a coherent explanation for one or several events.
These are supported by a wide range of evidence and are falsifiable.
Formulation of Theories
Earth's history is still preserved in the geological record in rocks and minerals and fossils.
The records are both incomplete and imperfect, but calculations can be made based on
measurements on rocks, calculations, experiments, and studies based on the principles of
physics and chemistry like temperature history.
Interpreting Earth's History
This is based on the premise that the present-day processes operated throughout
geologic time, but it never says that the processes we see today are the same as the
ones in the past.
This is the cornerstone of geology.
Uniformitarianism
Lecture 1
-
The Dynamic Evolving Earth
Monday, January 23, 2017 8:57 AM
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ones in the past.
This only acknowledges that the laws of physics and chemistry remained the same
through time.
To interpret geologic events from evidence preserved in rocks, modern day processes
must be understood.
Rates of processes may have changed overtime.
Some processes may be more important and unique to certain time intervals.
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